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Your Pre Market Brief for 08/27/2020

Your Pre Market Brief for Thursday August 27th 2020

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Stock Futures:
Wednesday 08/25/2020 News and Markets Recap:
Thursday August 27th 2020 Economic Calendar (All times are Eastern)

TODAY: GDP AND UNEMPLOYMENT!!!!

ALSO PENDING HOME SALES
Overnight News Heading into Thursday August 27th 2020
(News Yet to be Traded 8:00 PM - 4:00 AM EST)
End of Day and After Hours News Heading into Thursday August 27th 2020
(News Traded 4:00 PM - 8:00 PM EST)
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Upcoming Earnings:
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The Ultimate Quick Resource For the Amateur Trader.
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submitted by Cicero1982 to pennystocks [link] [comments]

Update and Few Thoughts, a (Well-Typed) transcript: Liza&Charles the marketeers, Voltaire kick-off, PrisM and Ebb-and-Flow to fuck ETH2.0 Gasper, the (back)log of a man and a falcon, lots of companies, September Goguen time, Basho, 2021 Titans, Basho, Hydra and much more thoughts and prayers

Hi everybody this is Charles Hoskinson broadcasting live from warm sunny Colorado. I'm trying a new streaming service and it allows me to annotate a few things and simulcast to both periscope and youtube. Let's see how this works. I also get to put a little caption. I think for the future, I'm just for a while going to put: "I will never give away ada". So, when people repost my videos for giveaway scams they at least have that. First off, a thank you, a community member named Daryl had decided to carve a log and give his artistic impression of my twitter profile picture of me and the falcon so that always means a lot when I get these gifts from fans and also I just wanted to, on the back of the Catalyst presentation, express my profound gratitude and excitement to the community.
You know it's really really cool to see how much progress has been made in such a short period of time. It was only yesterday when we were saying "when Shelley"? Now Shelley's out and it's evolving rapidly. Voltaire is now starting to evolve rapidly and we're real close to Goguen. At the end of this month we'll be able to talk around some of the realities of Goguen and some of the ideas we have and give some dates for certain things and give you a sense of where that project is at. The good news is that we have gained an enormous amount of progress and knowledge about what we need to do and how to get that done and basically people are just executing and it's a much smaller task than getting us to Shelley. With Byron to Shelley we literally had to build a completely new cryptocurrency from the ground up. We had to have new ledger rules, new update system, we had to invent a way of transitioning from one system to another system and there's hundreds of other little innovations along the way: new network stack and so forth. Byron cosmetically looks like Shelley but under the hood it's completely different and the Shelley design was built with a lot of the things that we needed for Goguen in mind. For example, we built Shelley with the idea of extended UTXO and we built Shelley understanding what the realities were for the smart contract model and that's one of the advantages you get when you do this type of bespoke engineering. There's two consequences to that, one, the integration is significantly easier, and two, the integration is significantly faster. We won't look at that same complexity there.
The product update at the end of the month... We'll really start discussing around some of these things as well as talk about partners and talk about how the development ecosystem is going to evolve. There are a lot of threads throughout all three organizations that are happening simultaneously. Emurgo, they're really thinking deeply about DeFi and they've invited us to collaborate with them on things like stablecoins for example but we're also looking at oracles (oracle pools), DEX and these other things and because there are already people in market who have made mistakes, learned lessons, it gives us the benefit of hindsight. It means we can be much faster to market and we can build much more competitive things in market and the Cardano community gets first access to these next generation DeFi applications without a lot of the problems of the prior generations and that's super beneficial to us.
You know, the other side of it, is that Voltaire is going to have a systemic influence not just on community funding but also the overall evolution and direction of the platform. The longer it exists the more pervasive it will become. Probably first applied towards the Cardano foundation roadmap but later on it will definitely have a lot of influence and say over every element aspect of the system including the launch dApps and these other things. Basically, long term, the types of problems that Cardano solves so that's incredibly appealing to me and very exciting to me because it's like I have this giant community brain with the best and brightest of all of you working with us to get us where we need to go.
You know, another thing that was super encouraging, it's a small thing, but it shows us that we're definitely in the right direction was that we recently got a demo from Pramod (Viswanath) and his team out of university of Illinois on a protocol they create called PrisM which is a super fast proof-of-work protocol and they wrote this beautiful paper and they wrote code along with it that showed that PrisM is a ten thousand times faster than Nakamoto consensus. If you take the bitcoin proof-of-work protocol, you strip it out, you put PrisM in, you can run the entire bitcoin system 10000 times faster. They have these beautiful benchmarks to show that. Even in bad network conditions. (I'm) promoting this team, they're, they're real researchers, and they're real engineers, they use a lot of cool HPC concepts like springboarding and other things like that to accommodate that. Then I asked him in the presentation, I said well, how much faster if you replay the Ethereum chain? He says, well, that it takes a big performance hit, could be only maybe a hundred times because that model is not as easy to optimize and shard with standard computer science concepts. In fact in some cases there are limitations there that really can't be overcome. It turns out that we're more on that UTXO side than we are on the account side. As a coincidence or intent of the design of extended UTXO we're gonna have a lot easier time getting much higher performance where and when it's necessary.
I also approved this week a scaling up of the Basho project. In particular, to build a hydra prototype team. The science has gotten to a point where we can make a really competitive push in that particular direction. What does that mean? It means that in just a few short months we can de-risk technological approaches that long-term will give us a lot of fruit where and when the community decides that they need infrastructure like hydra. Now, here's the beautiful thing about hydra. If you watch my whiteboard back in September of 2017 when Cardano first hit market with Byron I talked about this concept of looking at scalability with a very simple test which is as you get more people in the system it stays at the same performance or it gets faster. We all experience systems that do this, for example, bittorrent, more people downloading something you tend to be able to get it faster and we all experience the converse which is, the system gets slower when you get more people. What does this mean? It means that hydra is an actual approach towards true scalability in the system and it's a lot easier to do than sharding even though we have a beautiful approach to get the sharding on the ledger side if we truly desire to go down that way. There's beautiful ideas that we are definitely in deep discussions about. That's a very complex thing. There was recently a paper ("Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma") out of Stanford that showed that the Gasper protocol as proposed for ETH2.0 does have some security concerns and it's going to be the burden on the shoulders of the Ethereum 2.0 developers and Vitalik to address those concerns from those Stanford professors. Whenever you have these very complex protocols they have so many different ways they can break and things can go wrong so it's much more appealing when you don't have to embrace complexity to achieve the same. The elegance of hydra is that stake pool operators are very natural parties to put hydra channels on and every time we add one we get much more performance out of that and the system as it gets more valuable. The k factor increases which means you get more stake pull operators, which means you get more hydra channels, so with growth we get appreciation, with appreciation we get more decentralization, with more decentralization we get more performance. In essence, this spiritually speaking, is really what we meant when we said scalability. That the system will always grow to meet its particular needs and we have a very elegant way of moving in that direction that doesn't require us to embrace very sophisticated techniques. It's not to say that these techniques don't have a place and purpose but it says that the urgency of implementing these is gone and we then have the luxury to pick the best science when it's ready instead of rushing it to market to resolve a crisis of high fees. We'll never have that crisis so there's a beauty to Cardano that is missing, I in my view, from many cryptocurrencies and blockchains in the marketplace and we're now seeing that beauty shine through. Not only through our community who are so passionate and amazing but in the science and the engineering itself and how easy it is for us to navigate the concepts. How easy it is for us to add more things, to take some things away, to clean some things up here and there and our ability to move through.
I never imagined when in 2015 I signed up to go in on this crazy ride and try to build a world financial operating system we would have made as much progress as we made today. We've written more than 75 research papers as an organization many of which are directly applicable to Cardano. We've got great partners who work with Nasa and Boeing and Pfizer, massive companies, that have 10 years of history and millions of users to come in and help us grow better. We've worked with incredible organizations, major universities like university of Wyoming, university of Edinburgh, Tokyo, tech professors all across the world. We've worked with incredible engineering firms like VacuumLabs and AtixLabs and Twig and Well-Typed, runtime verification, QuviQ and dozens of others along the years and despite the fact that at times there's been delays and friction throughout this entire journey we've mostly been aligned and we keep learning and growing. It gives me so much hope that our best days are ahead of us and an almost fanatical belief that success is inevitable in a certain respect. You see because we always find a way to be here tomorrow and we always find a way to make tomorrow a better day than today and as long as that's the trend you're monotonically increasing towards a better tomorrow, you're always going to have that outcome, you're always going to be in a position where Cardano shines bright. Towards the end of the month we'll have a lot more to say about the development side and that'll be a beginning just like Voltaire is the beginning and then suddenly you now notice the beautiful parallelism of the roadmap. Shelley continues to evolve, partial delegation is coming, in fact, I signed the contract with vacuumlabs to bring that to Ledger (and Trezor). The Daedalus team is hard at work to make that feature apparent for everyone as is the Yoroi team.
You see that, with now Voltaire, and soon was Goguen, and these are not endpoints, rather they're just beginnings and they're never over. We can always make staking better, more diverse, more merit-based and entertain different control models, have better delegation mechanics, have better user experience. The same for smart contracts, that's an endless river and along the way what we've discovered is it's easy for us to work with great minds and great people. For example with testing of smart contracts I would love to diversify that conversation above and beyond what we can come up with and bring in some firms who have done this for a long time to basically take that part with us shoulder to shoulder and build beautiful frameworks to assist us. For example, runtime verification is doing this with, the EVM with a beautiful project called Firefly to replace Truffle. I believe that we can achieve similar ends with Plutus smart contracts.
When you ask yourself what makes a system competitive in the cryptocurrency space? In my view there are four dimensions and you have to have a good story for all four of those dimensions. You need security and correctness. A lot of people don't prioritize that but when they get that wrong it hurts retail people, it hurts everyday people, billions of dollars have been lost due to the incompetence and ineptitude of junior developers making very bad mistakes and oftentimes those developers faced no consequences. The people who lost money were innocent people who believed in cryptocurrencies and wanted to be part of the movement but didn't protect themselves adequately. That's a really sad thing and it's unethical to continue pushing a model that that is the standard or the likely outcome rather than a rare edge case. You have to as a platform, a third generation platformn invest heavily in giving the developers proper tools to ensure security and correctness. We've seen a whole industry there's been great innovations out of Quantstamp and ConsenSys and dozens of other firms in the space including runtime verification who have really made major leaps in the last few years of trying to improve that story. What's unique to Cardano is that we based our foundations on languages that were designed right the first time and there's over 35 years of history for the approach that we're following in the Haskell side that allows us to build high assurance systems and our developers in the ecosystem to build high assurance systems. We didn't reinvent the wheel, we found the best wheel and we're giving it to you.
I think we're going to be dominant in that respect as we enter 2021. Second, you look at things like ease of maintenance, ease of deployment, the life cycle of the software upgrades to the software and as we've demonstrated with things like the hard fork combinator and the fact that Voltaire is not just a governance layer for ada and Cardano but will eventually be reusable for any dApp deployed on our system. You have very natural tooling that's going to allow people to upgrade their smart contracts, their dApps and enable governance for their users at an incredibly low cost and not have to reinvent the governance wheel each and every application. This is another unique property to our system and it can be reused for the dApps that you deploy on your system as I've mentioned before. Performance is a significant concern and this was often corrupted by marketers especially ICO marketers who really wanted to differentiate (and) say: "our protocol tested on a single server in someone's basement is 500000 transactions per second" and somehow that translates to real life performance and that's antithetical to anyone who's ever to study distributed systems and understands the reality of these systems and where they go and what they do and in terms of performance. I think we have the most logical approach. You know, we have 10 years of history with bitcoin, it's a massive system, we've learned a huge amount and there's a lot of papers written about, a lot of practical projects and bitcoin is about to step into the world of smart contracts. We congratulate them on getting Schnorr sigs in and the success of Taproot. That means entering 2021, 2022, we are going to start seeing legitimate dApps DeFi projects, real applications, instead of choosing Ethereum or Algorand, EOS, Cardano, choosing bitcoin and they're adding a lot to that conversation. I think that ultimately that model has a lot of promise which is why we built a better one. There are still significant limitations with what bitcoin can accomplish from settlement time to the verbosity of contracts that can be written.
The extended UTXO model was designed to be the fastest accounting and most charitable accounting model ever, on and off chain, and hydra was designed to allow you to flex between those two systems seamlessly. When you look at the foundations of where we're at and how we can extend this from domain specific languages, for domain experts, such as Marlowe to financial experts, and the DSLs that will come later, for others, like lawyers and supply chain experts in medical databases and so forth and how easy it is to write and deploy these. Plutus being beautiful glue code for both on and off chain communications. I think we have an incredibly competitive offering for performance and when hydra comes, simply put, there'll be no one faster. If we need to shard, we're going to do that and definitely better than anybody else because we know where our security model sits and there won't be surprise Stanford papers to blindside us that require immediate addressing.
In terms of operating costs, this is the last component, in my view, and that's basically how much does it cost you the developer to run your application? There are really two dimensions, one is predictability and the other is amount. It's not just good enough to say: it's a penny per transaction today. You need to know that after you spend millions of dollars and months or years of effort building something and deploying something that you're not going to wake up tomorrow and now it's five dollars to do what used to cost a penny. You need that cost to be as low as possible and as predictable as possible and again the way that we architectured our system and as we turn things on towards the end of this year and as we enter into the next year we believe we have a great approach to achieve low operating cost. One person asks why Cardano? Well because we have great security and correctness in the development experience and tools with 35 years of legacy that were built right the first time and don't put the burdens of mistakes on your customers. They ask why Cardano and we say: well the chain itself is going to give you great solutions with identity value transformation and governance itself and as a consequence when you talk about upgrading your applications having a relationship with your customers of your applications and you talk about the ease of maintenance of those applications. There's going to be a good story there and we have beautiful frameworks like Voltaire that allow that story to evolve and we keep adding partners and who have decades of experience to get us along. We won't stop until it's much better. They asked why Cardano? We said because at the moment we're 10 times faster today than Ethereum today and that's all we really need for this year and next year to be honest and in the future we can be as fast as we need to be because we're truly scalable. As the system gets more decentralized the system improves performance and where and when we need to shard we can do that. We'll have the luxury of time to do it right, the Cardano way, and when people ask why Cardano? Because the reality is, it's very cheap to do things on our platform and the way we're building things. That's going to continue being the case and we have the governance mechanisms to allow the community to readjust fees and parameters so that it can continue being affordable for users. Everything in the system will eventually be customizable and parameterizable: from block size, to transaction fees and the community will be in a good position to dynamically allocate these things where and when needed so that we can enjoy as an ecosystem predictability in our cost.
In the coming weeks and months, especially in my company, we're going to invest a lot of time and effort into comparison marketing and product marketing. When I see people say, oh well, you've launched proof of stake, a lot of other people have done. I don't think those people fully appreciate the magnitude of what we actually accomplished as an ecosystem and the quality of the protocols that are in distribution. That's not their fault, it's our fault, because we didn't take the time in simplistic terms, not scientific papers and deep code and formal specifications, but rather everyday language, to really show why we're different. I admit that that's a product failing and that needs to be corrected so we hired a great marketing director, named Liza (Horowitz?) and she is going to work full time with me and others in the ecosystem, a great team of people, every single day to get out there and explain what we have done is novel, unique, competitive and special to our industry. Everything from Ouroboros and contrast to major other protocols from the EOSes and Algorands and the Tezos of the world. Why we're different, trade-offs we chose over them, to our network stack, to the extended UTXO model, to Plutus, to Marlowe and we're going to keep hammering away at that until we get it right and everybody acknowledges and sees what has been accomplished.
I've spent five years of my life, good years of my life, and missed a lot to get this project where it needs to go. All of our employees have invested huge sums of their personal lives, their time, their brand, their careers, in trying to make this the really most magical and special cryptocurrency and blockchain infrastructure around. No one ever signed up in this company or the other companies working on Cardano to work on a mediocre protocol. That's just another blockchain, they signed up to change the world, they signed up to build a system that legitimately can look at you in the face and say: one day we have the potential to have a billion users! That's what they signed up for and they showed up to play. They built technology that evolves in that direction with some certainty and great foundations and we have an obligation to market in a way that can show the world why, succinctly, with clarity. Understandably, this has been a failing in the past but you know what? You can always be better tomorrow that monotonically increasing make it better and that's what we're going to do. We recognized it and we're going to invest in it and with Voltaire if we can't do it. You the community can do it and we'll work with you. If you can do a better job and the funding will be there to get that done. In addition to this, we think about 2021 and we ask where does the future take us? I've thought a lot about this you know I've thought a lot about how do we get the next five years as we close out 2020 and here's the reality: we're not going to leave as a company until we have smart contracts and multi-asset and Voltaire has evolved to a point where the community can comfortably make decisions about the future of the protocol and that the staking experience has solidified and it's stable.
I don't care if this costs me millions or tens of millions of dollars out of my own pocket to make happen. I'm going to do that because that's my commitment to you, the community and every product update will keep pushing our way there. We'll continue to get more transparent, we'll continue to get more aggressive and hire more and parallelize more. Aware when we can, to deliver that experience so that Cardano gets where it needs to go. Then when we ask about where do we go next? The reality is that the science as an industry, the engineering as an industry has given a menu of incredibly unique attractive and sexy things that we can pursue. What we're going to do is work with the community and the very same tools that are turning on today, the Voltaire tools, the cardano.ideascale.com tools and we're going to propose a consortium and we're going to bring the best and brightest together and give a vision of where we can take the system in another five years. With the benefit of hindsight, massively improved processes, better estimation capabilities and the fact that we're not starting with two people at IOG. We're starting with 250 people and the best scientific division in our industry and the legacy of almost, nearly by the end of this year, 100 scientific papers. That's us, you know what, there's dozens of companies throughout the history who have worked on Cardano. It's about time to scale them up too and get client diversity. So come next year when the protocol has evolved to the point where it's ready for it, we'll have that conversation with you the community and that's going to be a beautiful conversation. At the conclusion of it, there's going to be certainty of how we're going to evolve over the next five years to get ourselves beyond the cryptocurrency space. I'm very tired of these conversations we have about: are you going to go to (coindesk's) consensus or not? Or who's going to be the big winner? What about Libra or what about this particular regulation and this crypto unicorn and this thing?
You know I've been in the space a long time and I've noticed that people keep saying the same things year after year in the same venues. Yes, the crowd sizes get larger and the amount of value at risk gets larger but I haven't seen a lot of progress in the places where I feel it is absolutely necessary for this technology to be permanent in the developing world. We need to see economic identity. People often ask what is the mission for Cardano? For us IOG, you look at economic identity and you take a look at a roadmap. For it, you scale up and down, and each and every step along the way, from open data, to self-sovereign identity, to financial inclusion. You can keep going down: to decentralized lending, decentralized insurance, decentralized banking. Each and every step along the way to economic identity. When you admit a blockchain tells you that, there's a collection of applications and infrastructure that you need to build.
My life's work is to get to a point where we have the technology to do that. The infrastructure to do that, with principles, and so we'll keep evolving Cardano and we'll keep evolving the space as a whole and the science as a whole until I can wake up and say: each box and that road to economic identity, for all people not just one group, we have a solution for that. I'm going to put those applications on Cardano and success for me is not about us being king of the crypto hill and having a higher market cap than bitcoin or being entrepreneur of the year coindesk's most influential person. It's meaningless noise, success for me is reflecting back at the things that we have accomplished together and recognizing that millions if not billions now live in a system where they all matter, they all have a voice, they all have an equal footing. The Jeff Bezos of the world have the very same experience as the person born in Rwanda and we're not done until that's the case. It's a long road, it's a hard road, but you know what? We're making progress, we have great people in Africa, we have great people in eastern Europe, we have great people in southeast Asia and great partners all along the way. Great people, Latin America, great people in south America, great people here in the United States.
When we talk about economic identity there are millions, if not tens of millions of Americans who don't have it. Same for Canadians, hundreds of thousands, who don't have it. Developed western cultures, it's the greatest blind spot of policy and as we enter into a depression as a result of coronavirus, add millions if not tens of millions more onto that list. Generations are being disenfranchised by this legacy system and we as an ecosystem, we as an entire community are offering a different way forward. Not hyper centralizationn not social credit but a way forward where you own your own money, your own identity, your own data. You're not a victim of surveillance capitalism, you're not a victim of civil asset forfeiture. When you say the wrong things, you get shut out of society. Each and every human being matters and I'm optimistic to believe that when you remind people that they matter they're gonna rise to the occasion. That is the point of my company. In the things that we do each and every day, that's our mission to give the platforms to the world so that those who don't have economic identity can get it and they can keep it and no one can take it from them and they can enjoy an ever increasing growth of standard of living wealth and prosperity.
However you want to measure that this is my goal post, I couldn't care less about the cryptocurrency space. It was a great place to start but the space needs to be reminded why it exists. Bitcoin was given a mandate on the back of the 2008 financial crisis to do something different. It was not given a mandate to go be a new settlement layer for central banks or a new way for the old guard to make more money and banks get bigger and for those who are in control to preserve their power. The whole point of doing something so crazy as to buy a coin that doesn't even exist in real life, that's just a bunch of numbers in the cloud, the whole point of that was so that we as a society could do something different than the way that we'd been doing things before. So, each and every member of the cryptocurrency space needs to remind everyone else from time to time why we're here and where did we come from and where are we going to go.
The beauty of Cardano is we have already achieved for the most part a decentralized brain and that momentum is pushing harder than ever. More and more scientists are waking up, more and more institutions are waking up, getting us there. The code we have, the right approach and I think we have a great competitive offering for 2021 as we go and battle the titans and that's going to be a lot of fun but we know who we are and where we're going and we're in the right places. It's so incredibly encouraging to see the stake pool operators not just be from California or Texas or New York or Canada. To see a lot of stake pool operators from the place that need the most, help everybody does matter and it means a lot to me for the people who are there but it means a lot to everybody to say that we have created an equal platform. It makes the participation of all of us so much more meaningful. We're not just talking to each other, we're talking to the world and by working together on this platform we're lifting the world up and giving people hope. That's the point, there's a lot more to do, we didn't get everything done. You never do you aspire, you work hard, you set a moon, shot and sometimes you can just get to orbit with the first go but you know what? When you build the next rocket you can go to Mars.
Thank you all for being with me, thank you all for being part of this. Today was a damn good day with the announcement of Voltaire. Go to cardano.ideascale.com. You can participate in that, so end of September is going to be a good day too. There's a lot of good days to come, in between a lot of hard days, doing tasks sometimes entirely forgettable but always necessary to keep the revolution going and the movement going. I cannot wait for 2021, our best days are ahead of us, because of you. You all take care now .
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFa9zL_Dl_w
Other things mentioned:
https://cardano.ideascale.com/
https://www.atixlabs.com/blockchain
https://www.well-typed.com/
https://www.vacuumlabs.com/
https://medium.com/interdax/what-is-taproot-and-how-will-it-benefit-bitcoin-5c8944eed8da
https://medium.com/interdax/how-will-schnorr-signatures-benefit-bitcoin-b4482cf85d40
https://quantstamp.com/
https://bloxian.com/bloxian-platforms/ (TWIG)
https://runtimeverification.com/firefly/
https://www.trufflesuite.com/
https://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/prism-deconstructing-the-blockchain-to-approach-physical-limits (PrisM and not our Prism https://atalaprism.io/)
Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma (aka Gasper and ETH2.0 fucker) https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.04987
http://www.quviq.com/products/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schnorr_signature
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Satoshi Nakamoto and Bitcoin are not the only contents in Blockchain, This public chain which is possible modifying global finance trending is the "brave wind and waves" for DeFi

DEFI is extending rapidly, Market value is skyrocketing
Every single employee and employer will be shocked by DeFi in Blockchain industry, There has not been a single concept existed can compare to DeFi since block chain technology created ,sparking the fire to spread through the whole block chain industry; Even the founder of Bitcoin and Blockchain Satoshi Nakamoto may not considered that the DeFi trending will exceed Bitcoin.
Defi has become the hot topic in Blockchain field since the beginning of 2019;DeFi is the abbreviation for Decentralized Finance, also called open finance, meaning to build decentralized contracts which belongs to open financial system. DeFi is dedicating to provide time free, space free financial activities to all the people, it is what we called decentralized finance.
In the current financial systems, all financial services are controlled or adjusted unitedly by centralized finance system, whether the basic function such as deposit and transfer, loan or derivatives transactions are monitored and distributed by centralized financial organizations; DeFi is hoping to build a transparent, addressable and inclusive P2P financial system, minimizing the trust risks, simplifying the transactions payment process, expanding transactions scenarios.
DeFi platform has 3 obvious advantages compare to traditional centralized financial systems.
1.Global financial services are applying broadly, allowing everyone getting financial services through internet or smart phones which based on decentralized financial system built-in blockchains, including all the services that current banks organizations provide.
2.Blockchain techniques have high openness characteristic, everyone has the right to access, but nobody has central control right, achieving decentralizing for financial transactions. This point is the original purpose for creating Bitcoin by Satoshi Nakamoto.
3.Cross border will be more convenient and more economical. DeFi is applying the openness trait in Blockchain, avoiding expensive commission during global payment, allowing financial transaction to be more convenient, efficient when minimizing the global transferring cost.
Due to these benefits, DeFi is able to occupy first place at the triennial palace examination for block chain industries because of the benefits above. Capitalist is taking up the positions of the fallen and rising to fight one after another; According to the data within block chain fields on Aug 20, the market value for the whole DeFi industry is reaching 11.3billion dollars, which is the signal for passing the top digital currency industry; at the meantime, all the transactions are reaching 429million dollars in all decentralized exchanges; The total loan is reaching 1.5 billion on loan platform; The fixed asset is reaching 6.37billion dollar value for DeFi.
For global depressed economic, DeFi industry capital is exceeding most financial industries. When the river rises, the boat floats high. DeFi related project is gaining large profits in the vigorous blockchain exploitation processes. Token price is skyrocketing in DeFi. In two years, Total value DeFi project is rising to 10billion or more, From reasonable perspective, The whole DeFi ecosystem is filling with industry bubble, which is missing the flexibility and grounded projects.
Superior projects have something in common.
The so-called decentralized finance in DeFi, It consists two parts, which are decentralization and finance, under current circumstances, most projects only achieve “Financial “part in the industry, real decentralizing has not been achieved; For most DeFi projects, the first customized version was not satisfied the marketing expectations, most core functions will need to be updated, so the initial team has to have complete authority to control the projects in order to complete on-time and efficiency updating jobs.
This means that all the DeFi projects we see, most projects are controlled by initial creating team. Is controlled DeFi belongs to real DeFi? Does any single project can achieve Finance +decentralized?
New born AITD may satisfied blockchain expectation for DEFI, AITD Blockchain new generation foundation public chain at business level is built for “Decentralization +Finance.
As the marketing needs increasing annually for finance industries, such as banks, insurances, securities. AITD is following the trend closely, connecting the idea and purpose of DeFi, building a healthy, complete decentralized financial ecosystem; Blockchain DeFi+AITD are extending to new direction for insurance, Trust, pledge, cross region payment.
INSURANCE: AITD is innovating the current medical system by integrating insurance easy use scenarios, let’s using medical insurance as an example. AITD blockchain is not only storing digital information prove to blocks, but also achieving message sharing; AITD is able to break through the each steps in insurance process, solving asymmetry problem, allowing information transparency during insurance process for upstream and downstream, achieving value flows; Providing the rewarding mechanism for information provider through information sharing, leading medical system information publicized, breaking through each circulation for Medical- insurance-monitoring, realizing medical electronic and electronic insurance business, achieving insurance business stored in block chain networks through blockchain smart contract, achieving auto insurance verification, intelligent insurance claiming goal.
PLEDGE The essence of Pledge is new Smart business, as a new model are becoming the main track for real application, achieving to be the solid foundation for decentralized finance. Financial services should not be built under opacity lonely island. AITD is dedicating to build a finance system that allows everyone visiting as long as internet is available, letting value flow freely; According to the high intelligence and high transparency characteristic, AITD will bring new revolutionized storm to global financial system. The transforming direction for Pledge is open finance, open finance is the future morphology for finance. In the future, we are building highly ecological operating systems, fully integrating the innovative characteristics for front technology, smart business, open organization, digitalized finance, forming delicate business system.
TRUST: which is connecting block chain techniques is incorporating innovation, freedom, equality gene.In the premise of Justice and fair, Block chain Trust is containing market value maintaining promotion system, which is able to observe the instant experiences feedbacks for global users through constant updating, promoting changes for products, perfecting uses experiences’ .AITD collective Trust has high transparency rate, requiring real name authentication for loan corporation and investors themselves, processing transparency for each project’s process, dedicating to build a safe, stable, transparent, efficient online and offline platforms for medium , small, micro sized companies which have capital demand and person who has financing needs; innovating the traditional Trust operation mode, practicing facilitating health industry through technology, applying assets operation idea of integrating “smart” ”capital” idea, collaborating with medical fields experts who made great contributions in this field;dedicating to facilitate medical resources, medical research abilities and financial capitals high efficiency integration.
CROSS REGION PAYMENTS: Block chain payment techniques are changing “traditional assets flow and information flow” operation modes through the structure and improving traditional high cost transferring, low transparency rate, transactions risks through unique advantages of block chains; AITD has comprehensive, strong international bank card fund collecting products and diverse overseas or local payment receiving methods, which are able to provide global one station online payment solution proposals, allowing users to transfer from anywhere, anytime in the world, enabling merchant to accept different kinds of payments habits, processing exchange rate payment automatically; According to cross region payment scenarios, transferring speed and low cost advantages will be concentrated, platform will collaborate with other platforms within the globe, assisting these platforms which have global community backgrounds to explore payment channels.
AITD is incorporating block chain technology and finance to the maximum level. In the original thoughts of Bitcoin from Satoshi Nakamoto,counting on Bitcoin to modify the current financial system mode, allowing real freedom for currency, open sources, decentralization, flowing throughout the society and applying, creating multiple finance scenarios Trust Consensus; AITD+DeFi can achieve things that bitcoin cannot achieve.
AITD advantages, self-owned public chain
Traditional DeFi projects are distributed on the Ethereum or other networks, traffic jam, low experience rate, high processing fee, internet jam, resisting developer and so on, DeFi projects is suggesting user and developer quitting in Ethereum; AITD which belongs to DeFi is facing the same problems, but AITD team has already found the best solution for this problem. We will explain it later.
The current situation that DeFi industries are facing:Although there are too much complaining towards Ethereum, the new or old projects cannot kept without Ethereum. According to the DeFi prime data, in 242 DeFi projects that collecting one time, 197 numbers of DeFi are deployed on Ethereum, EOS and Bitcoin only contain 22 and 23 , DeFi project number is approaching to zero on other public chains, Ethereum is considering as the second leading factor for blockchain industries after Bitcoin, determining the fate of DeFi.
Why are DeFi (such as hot Compound, Uniswap) not existing in other public chains? Ultimately, the reason for public chains hardly generate Defi (except Ethereum) due to the following 3 reasons.
1).Public chain which considers Ethereum as the first public chain, possessing competitive advantages in kinds of assets, total number of assets.
2) Unlike Ethereum, other public chains are not paying much attention to DeFi. they are losing the initiation for following the trend now
3) DeFi Decentralization governing after scaling, causing costs for moving Ethereum to other public chain are hard to estimate.
Actually, after DeFi shocked digital currency encrypted market, each public chain is entering DeFi military prepared competition, capital, techniques, human resources are constantly devoting into DeFi; Finally, there is no single public chain exceeding Ethereum or challenging Ethereum.Pulic chain problems are the pain points for the industry.
Ether researcher once said that “According to the jam in Ether network, even worse than ICO bubble, this is not exaggerated, During the prosperous period for ICO in 2018, Each transaction processing fee is reaching 5.4 US dollars. However, at the 5:00pm in Aug 13th , this number is skyrocketing and reaching 7.4 us dollars, It is 15 times high comparing to 0.5 US dollars in the previous month;DeFi prosperity on Ether is marketing behavior which is against humanity.
Under this circumstances, the trend for searching new public chain is necessary; what is the AITD team solution? The answer is public chain
To avoid anti humanity sanction by Ether public chain and also to build a complete, efficient DeFi ecosystem. AITD team is researching and developing self-owned public chain in block chain for three years, providing multi block chain scenarios services to large user groups on AITD block chain.
In the future,AITD will provide reliable, safe, convenient blockchain services to users in basic public information search, copyright administration, tracing for certified products, ensuring product security scenarios, achieving multi-path communication which Bitcoin is not able to process; Meanwhile, AITD chain is achieving self-closing loop for ecosystem, extending the spirit of DeFi to insurance, Trust, Pledge,Cross border payment etc in multiple financial scenarios, achieving decentralized finance for real.
Current block chain network is independent internet relatively, encountering information island problems; Isolation of the internet is not supporting collaborative operation between each blockchain network. Isolation limit applied fields for the blockchain techniques at maximum level; However, AITD is dedicating to build a strong extensibility block chain networks, when it achieves fast, safe cross chain data visit, it also builds a valuable internet for the whole block chain industry.
Valued internet+ Blockchain decentralized finance, AITD have strong ambition, dedicating to provide value of 11.3billion the best application in financial world, we will wait for the expecting result.
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HEMODYNAMIC ROUNDS: INTERPRETATION OF CARDIAC PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FROM PRESSURE WAVEFORM ANALYSIS (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: EVERYDAY ENCOUNTERS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK CFA PROGRAM CURRICULUM 2019 LEVEL II VOLUMES 1-6 – EBOOK HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (15TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS (CDX LEARNING SYSTEMS MASTER AUTOMOTIVE TECHNICIAN) – EBOOK STUDY GUIDE FOR PHARMACOLOGY: A PATIENT-CENTERED NURSING PROCESS APPROACH (8TH EDITION) – PDF MANAGEMENT ACROSS CULTURES (AUSTRALASIAN EDITION) – EBOOK TAYLOR’S POWER LAW: ORDER AND PATTERN IN NATURE – EBOOK THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF EXPERTISE AND EXPERT PERFORMANCE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DEVELOPING ONLINE COURSES IN NURSING EDUCATION (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK CERTIFIED ACADEMIC CLINICAL NURSE EDUCATOR (CNE®CL) REVIEW MANUAL – EBOOK A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PERSONAL CONDITIONING – EBOOK CALLED TO ACCOUNT: FINANCIAL FRAUDS THAT SHAPED THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS: 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PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY: A CLINICAL APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY, IMMUNOTHERAPY AND BIOTHERAPY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK STEP-UP TO EMERGENCY MEDICINE – EBOOK (IRWIN ECONOMICS) – ECONOMICS (21ST EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF INVESTING (13TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK VIDEO GAME LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT LEGAL AND BUSINESS ISSUES IN THE GAME INDUSTRY – EBOOK MASS MEDIA LAW (20TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRIVATE SECURITY AND THE LAW (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS, ACCOUNTING AND BUSINESS STUDIES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK HOUSE’S DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK COST ACCOUNTING: FOUNDATIONS AND EVOLUTIONS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO LEARNING ROBOT PROGRAMMING WITH ROS – EBOOK ENGINEERING MECHANICS: STATICS AND DYNAMICS (14TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED ACCOUNTING (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED ACCOUNTING 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Escape from Tarkov - New Player Guide!

Introduction

NEW VERSION: https://www.reddit.com/EscapefromTarkov/comments/ffyynf/escape_from_tarkov_new_player_guide_20_75_pages/

Greetings, this is dumnem, also known as Theorchero, but you can call me Theo. I'm an experienced Tarkov player and I'm writing this guide to try and assist new Tarkov players learn the game, because it has one hell of a learning curve. We'll be going over a lot of different aspects of this guide, and it is going to be huge. Feel free to digest this in parts.
Additionally, this is a work in progress. I will write as much as I can in one Reddit post, but subsequent parts will be in additional comments. Google Docs Version (Note: Link is placeholder atm)
Disclaimer: I haven't played Tarkov regularly in a couple months. It's possible there has been extensive changes that I have not kept up with. If there is anything I have gotten wrong or may have omitted, please let me know.
This is Primarily directed towards Tarkov Novices. It hopefully includes everything you need to know to be able to go into a Raid equipped for success and to successfully extract with gear.
Want to play with friends? Want to have fun and learn Tarkov? Check out my discord here.

Changelog

WORKING ON UPDATING FOR .12, HANG TIGHT.
6/2:
  • Added Veritas chart
  • Fixed Vaseline/Star Balm stats, lab key card.
  • Adjusted formatting slightly, spelling adjustments.
  • Added additional resource, updated old ones.

Table of Contents

  • Tarkov Overview - What is Escape from Tarkov?
  • Tarkov Resources - Useful links
  • Tarkov's Maps
  • Tarkov's Health System
  • Tarkov's Quest System and Progression
  • Tarkov's Hotkeys to Know
  • Getting Started
  • Player Scavs
  • New Player's loadouts - LL1 Traders
  • What to Loot - How to get the most money per slot
  • Stash Management - How to combat Gear Fear
  • What now?

Tarkov Overview - What is Escape from Tarkov?

Escape from Tarkov is a tactical, realistic, FPS with MMO elements developed by Battlestate Games. It is currently in closed Beta. The game features several maps in which your primary character, your PMC, goes into Raids in order to find and salvage loot and useful equipment to survive and thrive in Tarkov. Death is very punishing in Tarkov. If you die you lose everything you had on you when you die (with the exception of what's inside your Container and your melee weapon) including any equipment you brought with you or what you found inside the Raid.
Enemies can be players (PMCs) or 'Scavs' (Scavengers) that are either controlled by AI or by players. Unlike many shooters, AI enemies in Tarkov are deadly - they can and will kill you on sight.
It features beautiful and immersive environments, intricate and in-depth weapon modification system, a complex health system, attention to detail with loot placement, and options for combat. Do you want to play slow and stealthy, to avoid fights, or set up a deadly ambush on an unwary foe? Or do you prefer to raw combat, where only your quick wit, placements of shots, and tenaciousness determines who gets out alive? It's your Tarkov. You make the rules.

Tarkov Resources - Useful links

I take no credit or responsibility for any of the content in these links. To the best of my knowledge, these are updated consistently and are accurate, but user beware.

Quick-Reference Ammo Chart

Created by SirKilljoy, you can find it here. Note: As of 6/2/19, Outdated. Searching for updated file. Send if you have one!
An updated ammo chart can be found here. It's not fancy or quick reference though. Sorry!

Tarkov Wiki

Absolutely fantastic resource. You can visit them here.
It is a massive collection of everything that we players have been able to find.
They contain trades, user-created maps, lists of ammo, parts, weapons, loot, etc. If it's in the game, it's on the Wiki, somewhere.
I highly recommend opening the wiki page for the Map that you plan on raiding in.
Factory
Customs
Woods
Shoreline
Interchange
The Lab ('Labs')

Map Keys and You

Huge collection of all the keys in the game. These are also on the wiki, but this page has them all on one page, and tries to inform the user if the key is worth keeping or using.
Check it out here.
This section is open to revision. Mention me in a thread (or in the comments below) about a resource and I'll see about adding it here.

Tarkov's Weapon Compatibility Guide

Pretty self explanatory. Also includes a Key guide and a Mod guide.
Check it out here.

HUGE Reference Bible by Veritas

Courtesy of Veritas (Send me his reddit username?), It's located here. (Open in new tab.)
Contains: Detailed information about: Ammunition, Health, Firearms, Body Armor, Helmets, Rigs & Backpacks, Labs & Quest keys.

Tarkov's Maps

Tarkov features several maps - ranging from wide, beautiful vistas to ruined factory districts, to an abandoned laboratory where illegal experiments were being conducted. It is important to learn the maps you intend to play. In order to keep your gear, you must 'extract' at one of your designated exfiltration points. Not all exfils will be active every game, and some are conditional.
To see what extracts are available to you, double tap 'O' to show raid time and your exfils. If it has a ???? it might not be open.
You can load Raids in an OFFLINE status, which allows you to explore the map or practice against AI without losing gear.
You do not keep any EXP or gear you find in the OFFLINE Raid, though.
To access OFFLINE Raids, head into a Raid normally until you see this screen.
Simply check 'Enable OFFLINE mode for this Raid' and you're good to go! You even have a choice on whether or not to add AI. You can also control how many AI enemies spawn, fewer than normal or a great deal more! You can even make Scavs fight each other. (Framerates beware.)

Factory

Gate 3 Extract
A small, fast-paced map that was primarily created for PvP. Scavs spawn in all the time. Very close quarters, shotguns and SMGs tend to dominate here. PMCs can only access one Exit (Gate 3) without the Factory Exit Key. Good place to go if you need PMC kills as action is pretty much guaranteed. It is recommend NOT to bring in a lot of gear to Factory until you are experienced.

Customs

Extract map
A fairly large map that was recently expanded. Essentially, players spawn either on 'warehouse' or 'boiler (stacks)' side. If you see a large red warehouse near you (Customs Warehouse), then you spawned on the warehouse side. If you don't, you likely spawned near Boiler side.
The location for most quests in the game. Finding geared players here is very easy, so if you are low level attempting to complete early quests (like The Bronze Pocketwatch) it's recommend to AFK in the raid for 20 mins or so, as most players will have moved out of spawns and hit the 'hot' areas already, so it's less likely to be contested, so you may grab your quest item(s) and proceed immediately to Exfil.
Contains a Scav Boss, which is a group of scavs with above-average to high-tier gear that has a chance to spawn in Dorms or Gas Station.

Woods

Woods Map with Exfil
A very large map that is mostly just a large forest, with the occasional bunker, and the Lumber Mill in the center. The Lumber Mill is the primary point of interest, as it contains a couple quest locations and is the primary location to farm Scavs, as Scavs killed on woods is the only known location to find the Arsenal Key, which is the rarest and most valuable key in the game at the moment.
Since the map is so large and open, sniper rifles with scopes usually reign king here. You will see a lot of players with Mosin rifles as they are a cheap way to train the Sniper skill (for a quest later on) and are capable of killing geared players and scavs alike.
Overall, not usually very populated. An early quest from Prapor sends you here to kill a number of Scavs. A good map to learn the game, as although the loot is not fantastic, you can get experience with how the game runs and operates while fighting AI and possibly getting lucky with a key find off a scav.

Shoreline

Shoreline Map, with Loot, Exfil, etc
A very large map, notorious for its FPS hit. Generally speaking, one of the better maps for loot.
The primary point of interest is the Resort, but scavs spawn there, and is primarily occupied by hatchlings (players only with hatchet, ie melee weapon) and geared players. Resort has great loot, but requires keys to access most of it.
A great map to learn though from new players as the outskirts still contains plenty of loot and combat opportunities with AI scavs. You can hit Villa, Scav Island, Weather station, Docks, etc and come out with a backpack full of valuable gear fairly easily.
Location of many quests, including a large quest chain where players are required to kill many, many, scavs on Shoreline.

Interchange

Detailed map
Great, great loot area, but very complex map. Doesn't run very well on old computers. Features a mostly-binary exfil system like Shoreline, but.. kinda worse. Exfil camping is fairly common on this map. Huge map with multiple floors and many many different stores. Communication with teammates is a challenge on this map, but the map is also fantastically detailed.
This map features a lot of loot that depends on the kind of store you're in. It's a great place to farm rare barter materials which are valuable to sell on the Flea market or to use for quests. An early quest (from Ragman) sends you here to kill a large amount of Scavs. I'd recommend getting Ragman to level 2 and accepting his quest before going to Interchange, as getting this quest done can take a while as it is and you want all scav kills to count towards progress.

The Lab ('Labs')

Here's a map.
This is a very complex map, so I highly recommend you read the Wiki article and look at all the maps to get an idea of what it's like.

INSURANCE DOES NOT WORK ON THIS MAP.

If you purchase insurance and lose your items on this map, doesn't matter from whom, you will not get them back.

LABS IS NOT LIKE OTHER MAPS. READ THIS SECTION CAREFULLY.

Labs is by far the most lucrative map to play at the moment. You can easily earn several million roubles per hour by killing Raiders (Juiced-up scavs that are ONLY on Labs), looting their equipment, then running to one of the many, many extracts. Extract camping is hard to pull off and pretty much not viable on Labs.
DISCLAIMER: Labs, like much of Tarkov, is under constant development, so issues may be fixed or created without warning. Always check patch notes!

Raiders

Raiders are the avatars of Death in Tarkov, clad in USEC and BEAR hats, high-end armor, and plenty of firepower to boot. Do not fight Raiders directly. They WILL kill you. Raiders are absolutely broken this patch, and are getting fixed next patch to help fix their exploits of both poor AI and how they're a little.. insane. At the moment, the only way to kill raiders is to camp a hallway, room, or door, and attract the scavs to you, headshotting them the moment they enter before they have a chance to lock onto you.
Raiders can see you through and shoot you through surfaces you cannot.
This means you have to be very careful when engaging them. They are also often equipped with very high-end ammo, meaning that most faceshields (even Killa helmets) can be useless vs a Scav who spawned with 'big boy' ammo, 7N39. They can shoot your head if it's even slightly visible. They can prone instantly, as they have no ping. If they drop without slumping over, get to cover immediately.
Typically, strategies to farm Labs (barring rushing certain rooms for static loot) involve rushing a camp-spot and baiting raiders to your location and taking them out quickly, efficiently, and with no mercy. There are many locations to camp, and since there's so many exfiltrations, it's ultimately up to personal preference.
Raiders often spawn with armor (often Troopers and Gen4s) a rig (Sniper or Ana Alpha rig, usually) and a variety helmets and weapons. Always check the ammo the raiders spawn with. If they spawn with ANYTHING other than PS (and 12 gauge) LOOT IT! You can right click their magazine and hit 'unload ammo' to get the ammo without having to grab the mags, which saves space.
BS, BT, BP, 7N39, etc can be worth several hundred roubles a round on the market. They're extremely valuable.
Additionally, Raiders spawn IFAKS, Morphine, and grenades (F-1 & Flashbangs (Zarya)) with regularity. They can also spawn with random consumables and large clumps of cash in their pockets as well. They can spawn several backpacks, most of them being rather large, if relatively uncommon.
Additionally, Raiders can have American names, breach doors, and mumble as if they are a USEC PMC because some of the Raiders are actually USECs. You will learn with experience what the Scavs will or will not say.
Experience Farming on Labs
Labs is perhaps the best place to farm experience on the current patch.
Killing a Raider with a headshot awards 1100 Experience.
This does not include any looting, inspection (searching bodies), examine, streak, or other experience.
Killing a large sequence of Raiders gives additional bonus experience in the form of Streak rewards, usually 100 bonus exp per additional kill.
Surviving the raid multiplies all of these sources of experience by 1.5x
Changes coming to Labs
Disclaimer: I am not a BSG developer or employee. This is what I have seen on this subreddit and heard elsewhere. Some might be purely rumor, but other points are confirmed by Nikita.
Labs is currently undergoing an overhaul. At the moment, you require consumable Keycards to enter Labs, which may be purchased from Therapist or bartered Mechanic in exchange for 1 Bitcoin starting at Loyalty Level II. They can also be found in drawers and jackets. Scavs can drop permanent keycards that replace most keys used in the previous iteration of labs.
The full extent of the changes coming is not known.
Remember, you can load a map in OFFLINE mode to practice against bots or to learn the map without fear of losing gear.

Tarkov's Health System

Tarkov Wiki Article
Tarkov has a very advanced health system, and while it might seem overwhelming at first, you'll get the hang of it rather quickly. It features a very wide variety of effects and injury, including hydration, energy, blood pressure, blood loss, fractures, contusion, intoxication, exhaustion, tremors and more.
Not all of the Health System is implemented yet. Expect changes!
Your character (PMC, or otherwise) has a combined Health of 435. Each of his limbs have separate health. Taking damage to a limb that reduces it to 0 'blacks' that limb. Blacked limbs are a problem. They greatly impair the activities your PMC performs, and taking damage in a blacked limb amplifies the damage by a multiplier and spreads that damage among your other non-black limbs equally. You cannot heal a blacked limb.
Notes: Bloodloss applies damage to the affected limb and can be spread like other damage to a blacked limb. Treat immediately. Also causes significant dehydration!
Losing a limb applies additional effects. Fractures also apply these effects but not the damage amplification (Except for damage if running on fractured leg.)
Dehydration is what happens when your Hydration level reaches 0. You can view your Hydration level in your gear page, at the bottom left. Becoming dehydrated is extremely bad. You take constant damage. Taking dehydration damage can kill you if you have a black chest or head.
Head/Chest: Bullet damage resulting in losing your head or chest is instant death. Note: Bloodloss resulting in your Head/Chest being black does not result in death, but any damage to them beyond that point will! A back chest will causes you to cough (much like your stomach!)
Painkillers: Prevents coughing that comes from your chest. Doesn't help otherwise.
Stomach: Massively increased rate of dehydration and energy loss. You must find liquids or exit the Raid soon. Additionally, your PMC will cough sputter loudly, attracting attention.
Painkillers: Significantly reduces the frequency and volume of the coughs.
Arms: Makes activities like searching, reloading, etc, take additional time, as well as adding a sway, reducing accuracy. Arms have a .7x damage multiplier.
Painkillers: Reduces sway, removes debuff Pain.
Legs: Blacked legs cause your PMC to stumble and be unable to run. Blacked legs have a 1x damage multiplier.
Painkillers: Allows you to walk at full speed and to run.
WARNING: Running while your legs are blacked or fractured WILL DAMAGE YOU.
Health Items
Tarkov features many health items - 'Aid' items, which can be used to restore your characters health and to fix ailments or injuries he receives as the result of combat or mishaps. The two most important health conditions to consider are bloodloss and fractures, which have both been covered above. Some food items may have ancillary effects, such as losing hydration.
Since in the current patch the only ailments to worry about are bleeding and fractures, it changes which health items are most necessary. We'll go over them below.

Health Restoration

Medical Items on Wiki
AI-2 medkit
The newb's medical kit. You receive several of these when you start Tarkov - they'll already be in your stash. Available from Level I Therapist, they are cheap and effective way of healing early in the game. They will not stop bloodloss. Because of this, you also need to bring bandages or a higher-grade medical kit.
Affectionately called 'little cheeses' by the Tarkov community. Using it takes 2 seconds, and because of how cheap it is, it's often brought in by higher level players to supplement their healing without draining their main kit (which is capable of healing bloodloss or sometimes fractures). Due to its short use time, it's often very useful during combat as you can take cover and quickly recover damage taken to a vital limb.
Bandages
The newb's bloodloss solution. Available from Therapist at Level I. A better version, the Army Bandage is available at Level II, after a quest. Mostly obsolete after unlocking the Car Medical kit. Activating takes 4 seconds, and removes bloodloss to one limb.
Splint
The newb's solution to fractures. Cheap, takes five seconds to use, and takes up 1 slot. Not generally recommended to take because fractures effects can be greatly mitigated with the use of Painkillers. Available from Therapist at Level I, no quest needed.
Car Medical Kit
The newb's first real medical solution. Available LL1 as a barter (2 Duct Tape) and available for Roubles after completing Therapist's second quest. Has a larger health pool than AI-2's (220, vs AI-2's 100), and removes bloodloss. Takes up a 1x2 slot, so requires to be placed in a tactical rig in order to be used effectively. Cheap and fairly efficient, takes a standard 4 seconds to use. Rendered effectively obsolete when the Salewa is unlocked.
Salewa
Good medkit for use in mid and end-game. Contains 400 total health and can remove bloodloss. Relatively expensive at 13k roubles per kit, though. Same size as the Car medical kit, so requires a tactical rig to use effectively. Because Tarkov does not currently have effects like Toxication in the game at the moment, this kit is favored by most players who go into a raid with at least a moderate level of gear.
Unlocked at Therapist Level II after completing a level 10 Prapor quest, Postman Pat Part II.
IFAK
Fantastic medical kit, and is the one preferred by most players. Features 300 health and the ability to remove bloodloss and a host of other negative effects that are not yet implemented into the game. It does not, however, remove fractures. Taking up only a single slot, it is favored by players in all stages of gear, and it is recommend to carry one in your Secure Container in case of emergencies. Is available at Therapist Level II for a barter (Sugar + Sodium), and may be purchased for Roubles at Level III after completing Healthcare Privacy, Part I.
It is a fairly expensive kit, but due to its durability, its small size, and ability to remove bloodloss, it is a very common medical item used by players of all levels.
Grizzly
The 'big daddy' medical kit, boasting an impressive total health resource of 1800. It is also a very large kit, taking up 4 slots (2x2) - in order to be able to use this quickly, it would require specialized tactical rigs that feature a 2x2 slot. It removes all negative effects (some costing HP resource), including fractures.
Used by highly-geared players who intend on staying in raids for an extended period of time, or by players with additional Secure Container space available in case of emergencies. It is available for barter at Therapist Level II, and purchase at Therapist Level 4.

Pain Management

Using any of these items results in your character being 'On Painkillers' which allows you to sprint on fractured and blacked legs, as well as reducing effects of fractures and blacked limbs, and removing the debuff Pain. Essentially, the only difference between most of these items are the speed of use, price, availability, and duration of the effect.
Analgin Painkillers
The holy grail of pain medication. With the recent changes, "Painkillers" now have 4 total uses, not 1. The total duration is now greater than Morphine and less risk of waste. Takes a short time to use, and is available from Therapist Level 1 for both barter and Roubles.
Morphine
Quick application of painkillers. Favored by some highly geared players as it has greater usability in combat then it's typical counterpart, Painkillers. Has a longer duration, but only one use. Is required for a fairly early Therapist (and a late Peacekeeper) Quest, so it is recommend to hoard 10 of them, then sell the rest unless you intend on using them. They are worth a good amount to Therapist and take up little space so they are a valuable loot item. Available from Therapist for Roubles at Level 4, after completing Healthcare Privacy, Part 3.
Augmentin
Basically a cheaper Morphine. One use, 260s. Not recommended over Painkillers due to its cost. No current barter for this item, so usually it's just a fairly expensive, small loot item to sell to Therapist when found.
Ibuprofen
Powerful painkiller. Lasts 600 seconds and has 12 uses. However, it is not recommended to use it as a Painkiller. It is very valuable because it cannot be purchased from Dealers, it must be found, and it is a barter component to late-game containers, the Keytool and THICC Items Case.
Vaseline
Powerful medical item. Cannot be purchased from dealers. Has 10 uses. Removes Pain.
Golden Star Balm
Fairly useful medical item. It can remove Pain and Contusion (not a big deal of a debuff, goes away on its own shortly) and provides a small bonus to hydration and energy. However, because Hydration is usually easy to restore (Liquids are easy to find as 'common' or 'trash' tier loot), and Energy at the moment can't run to 0 within current Raid timers, it is Recommended to just to sell to Therapist as a Loot item.
Medical Injectors are not covered here. Essentially, they are powerful but niche items with strong side effects. Most recommended use is to store them in your Secure Container and sell them either on the Flea Market or to Therapist for roubles.
To be able to Hotkey a medicine item, they must be in a tactical rig or your pockets.

Tarkov's Quest, Progression, and Experience Systems

Tarkov features a very immersive progression system where your main character (PMC) is going into raids to acquire loot - goods that can be sold for a profit to other players, to Dealers (NPC Merchants), or used to fulfill quest requirements in order to complete them and receive your rewards. Additionally, your main character will increase their prowess in a number of skills, which increases everything from how much they can run, increases the ease of which recoil can be controlled, and even how far you can throw grenades. These are referred to 'soft skills.'
Additionally, your PMC is assigned a Level. You can increase your Level by earning Experience - which is rewarded by performing numerous tasks throughout the Raid, completing quests, examining new items, killing other players and Scavs, etc. Successfully extracting from a raid will increase the experience you earn from the raid via a multiplier.
Increasing your PMC's level will allow you to complete additional quests, which increases your Reputation with certain Dealers (and may reduce your Reputation with others) allowing you access to better equipment to purchase. Additionally, completing quests will often reward you with large sums of currency and sometimes equipment, and certain quests unlock items for purchase from that dealer.
A Dealer's arsenal of available weapons, ammo, mods, medication, containers, and etc to purchase by you is determined by their Loyalty Level - or LL, for short. Certain Dealers specialize in different kinds of equipment, and they will pay different rates or straight up not buy particular items. In a future release, eventually Dealers will offer discounts to the player based off their Loyalty Level.
Article on Dealers

Increasing Loyalty Level

Increasing your Trader's loyalty level is extremely important to your progression and overall success in Tarkov. Being able to purchase better Ammo and Equipment is essential to being able to fight other players and secure their loot for your own. Owning Prepare for Escape and Edge of Darkness (EoD) editions of Escape from Tarkov will increase your starting Reputations with Traders. It is unclear if this change will stay after the game's full release.
Typically though, you need three things to increase your Trader's level.
  • Reputation
This is accomplished via quests. Completing a quest will reward you with an increase in the quest givers' reputation, sometimes an increase in another trader's reputation, and sometimes will reduce the Reputation of another trader. Not all Traders need a certain level of Reputation to increase their loyalty Level to II. Peacekeeper and Ragman, for example, just need you to spend a certain amount of money with them.
  • Character Level and Experience Gain
The primary gate behind your trade level (and thus your overall economy and gear leverage) is your Character Level. You increase this by gaining Experience. The easiest way to gain experience is to Loot high value areas, fight players, and kill scavs while completing quests. Generally speaking, your level will advance as you play the game at a moderate pace. One way to farm experience though is to avoid looting all-together and just focus on killing a large number of scavs from a safe distance, after learning where they tend to spawn on any given map. This patch however, labs is fantastic for experience gain. (See above.) Another strategy (albeit one that takes longer) is to loot everything, then drop what you don't want. You gain experience for finding items and picking them up, so picking them up to drop them is technically the best way to gain the most exp per kill.
You can receive additional bonuses to Experience earned. Successfully extracting will increase your experience by a multiplier, typically 1.5x the experience gained during the raid, escaping also rewards a 300 exp Escape bonus which is added to your total before the multiplier is applied.
You can also receive experience bonuses for Exploration, so visiting different parts of the map will reward you with sums of experience, usually 100 to 300 or so. Killing multiple enemies in a row will reward you with Streaks, whose rewards increase as you get more kills. Getting a kill with a Headshot also significantly improves experience gain from kills. You also receive a (very small) bonus when you survive consecutive raids.
Note: Completing a Raid too early (via extraction) will cause you to receive a Run-Through status, which reduces experience earned in that raid by 50%.
Most Quests require you to be a certain level to unlock, and upon completion rewards you with a lot of exp and usually the ability to purchase specific equipment.
  • Money Spent
This is pretty self-explanatory. As mentioned above, Peacekeeper and Ragman can be increased easily just be selling and buying from them. If you need to artifically inflate the amount spent, a good idea is to purchase a large amount of cheap items from them and sell them back to the Trader. You still take a significant loss, usually around 50-60% per purchase, but since the money spent counts both items sold to the vendor and purchases, you get about 140-150% credit per item at about half the cost.

Selling Efficiency

Not all dealers pay the same for certain items. It is important to note that a lot of this is my personal experience, and prices can fluctuate as the Developers may change them for any reason. Use your own common sense and check various dealers before selling particularly lucrative items.

Prapor

Sells AKs, Magazines, many different Ammo types, Grenades, and weapon modifications. I don't tend to sell to him very often, as he doesn't pay the highest for any items that I have personally seen and because you tend to buy most Ammo and mags from him it's not a particular issue to level him up with money spent.

Therapist

Sells medical supplies, food and drink, and storage cases, which are items that effectively increase the size of your stash because they have more space inside than they take up. Most storage items are restricted to certain item types. Pays most for items like Keys, Statues, Rolers, Bitcoin, etc. Many of these items should be sold on the market instead of to her, but often times it's not worth the hassle.

Fence

Pays least for items, sells items for more than other Dealers. Items other players have sold will appear here. Only sell items to Fence that other dealers will not take! Basically a placeholder for an expanded Market.

Skier

Sells various weapons, mods, ammo, Euros, and containers. Pays most for items like Armor, backpacks, headgear, facemasks, flashlights, sights, etc. It is important to note, that Skier will not buy Weapons or most Mods. That means for things like flashlights, you have to take the flashlights/sights off the mount or rail in order for him to buy them, but he pays the best.

Peacekeeper

Deals entirely in Western equipment, UN armor, helmets, etc. Will buy most items, but will pay USD for them. Deals entirely in USD. One good way to get his money spent requirement is just to buy USD, which is used for a later quest from Skier, which unlocks his quest chain. He has a lot of good deals, experiment for yourself. At the moment his MP5 for 10 'bars' knives (scav knives) is an exceptionally good deal and easy to accomplish for new players.

Mechanic

Sells mostly completed weapons with various modifications and unique names, and mods. Sells magazines and some ammo. Offers containers as you progress. His quests are easy to complete, but often are money dumps in exchange for large sums of EXP more than anything else. Pays the most for modifications (except for sights and suppressors) and stripped guns.

Ragman

Sells backpacks, armor, tactical vests, and helmets mostly. Offers aesthetic clothing. Can obtain LL2 by just purchasing from him, does not require reputation. In fact, his first quest tasks you with that very objective. As far as I can see, he does not pay the most for any items in particular. But he is a very useful merchant once you have him at level 2. He will sell Scav Backpacks, which are an extremely efficient backpack to use as it's fairly large but very cheap.
Rule of Thumb for selling items at most value
Weapons: Strip the weapon! Take apart ALL pieces of it (including gas tubes, separating flashlights from ring mounts, etc), sell what you can to Skier. For the rest, sell to Mechanic.
Keys, Food, Medical Items, Statues, Bitcoin, Rolers, etc: Therapist or the Market. For items like this, ALWAYS check the Market first! A lot of these kinds of items are in valuable trades or are required for quests; this means that other players are often willing to pay more for them, above trader prices.

Continued below in a comment, due to character limit.

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ASIC Resistant Hard Fork Discussion Overview

I am speaking on behalf of myself, Hudson Jameson, and not on behalf of the Ethereum Foundation or any other entity. However, I am a lawyedoctor and this post is both medical and legal advice. Just kidding, it isn't.
Hey all!
I've been closely following the debate that has been happening across social media and chat channels the past 2 weeks regarding the possibility of designing and implementing a new ASIC resistant proof-of-work algorithm. The debate is over whether or not we should hard fork the Ethereum network in order to prevent ASIC miners from operating. I am in the unique position of organizing and running the bi-weekly core developer meetings and have been active in the ecosystem for a while. I want to make sure both sides feel like they are heard. This post is meant to provide context and offer next steps for both sides of the argument.

Facts

This next section is my best effort at summarizing the arguments from both sides. I am numbering them to make it easier to reference a specific argument for or against.

Pro ASIC Resistance (PAR)

There are 2 great resources that provide more detail to these bullet points.
  1. Medium Article - Why Ethereum should adjust algo on next planned Hardfork? From a Miner’s perspective by bitsbetrippin.
  2. /EtherMining Thread - Regarding Threads on Bitmain and ASIC Resistance (Mega Thread!) by Robbbbbbbbb.

Pro Doing Nothing (PDN)

There are 2 great resources that provide more detail to these bullet points.
  1. Blog post - Anti-ASIC Forks Considered Harmful by Phil Daian.
  2. Ethereum Core Developer Meeting #36 Notes/Video. Arguments described in the recent core developer meeting have a timestamp linking to the video.

How long until Casper is launched?

This seems to be a sticking point in many of the arguments. Here is the latest: Researchers are in the process of finalizing the code for the 2nd stage of the testnet with the goal of completing and freezing the full specification of the Casper PoS algorithm. geth and Parity could start implementing parts of the Casper today. Casper is currently being formally verified by Runtime Verification which should take another 4-5 months to complete. Multiple academic groups are also looking at Casper. A formal EIP on Casper is being worked on and will be released for review in the next 2 weeks. The plan is to have Runtime Verification formally verify Casper, relaunch a custom Casper testnet with specs from the EIP, relaunch the contract on an Ethereum testnet, and finally launch Casper on the mainnet. There is no official timeline and there is unlikely to be one, in my opinion, until we get much closer to Casper being formally verified. (40:23)

So what now?

Well I for one am going to make myself a whiskey. Not because this was stressful, but because I enjoy whiskey. I actually find this pretty fun.
Anyways, if you are in the PAR group I suggest you act on your convictions and help with some of the EIPs being produced. If you are in the PDN group you can provide counter-arguments to the PAR group in forums/chat rooms. Currently the rough consensus of Ethereum core developers is that of the PDN group. However, my experience is that they are open to whatever the community wants as long as community consensus, or something close to it, can be demonstrated. There are many ways to determine this, including voting and discussions and EIPs. I encourage everyone to participate in this process.

You said a thing wrong!

If you feel like I left off an argument or made a mistake in this post let me know in the comments. I'll track edits at the bottom of this post.
Later!
submitted by Souptacular to ethereum [link] [comments]

Mitigating the Risk of Ransomware Attacks in the Public Sector

Ransomware attacks were on the rise around the world in 2019. In the U.S. alone, more than 620 government entities, public institutions, healthcare service providers, school districts, colleges and universities had their data held hostage. These relentless attacks have interrupted everyday life in U.S. cities by massively disrupting municipal operations, emergency and medical services, and educational institutions.

Why governmental agencies and public institutions are a primary target

Attackers target public institutions for several key reasons. First, they are more likely to pay up. After all, the goal of a ransomware attack is to disrupt operations badly enough and long enough that the organization will pay the ransom. According to Coveware, a typical ransomware incident lasts for 9.6 days — an eternity for any governmental organization and public institution under the constant pressure of public scrutiny because so many people depend on its services. For example, DCH Health Systems, a network of Alabama hospitals, paid an undisclosed sum to attackers after encryption of critical files forced staff to use paper copies instead of digital records and turn away new patients. Similarly, more than 50 educational organizations experienced ransomware attacks last year, forcing some of them to delay the beginning of the academic year for thousands of students and their families; one district paid $88,000 for the decryption key after negotiating the payout down from $176,000.
Second, many governmental agencies and public institutions lack the resources to protect against cyber attacks in general and ransomware in particular. Many of them, especially smaller organizations, use managed service providers (MSPs) to help with IT operations, which often requires granting the MSPs elevated privileges. This provides an additional entry point for attackers, who target the MSP and distribute their ransomware to many of its clients at once. For instance, a single threat actor attacked 23 Texas government organizations using this attack path.
Of course, some municipalities refuse to pay ransom, which is the strategy recommended by many law enforcement agencies. Baltimore, for instance, declined to pay over $75.000 in bitcoin to an attacker and instead decided to recover the data from backups. Even so, the financial damage can be significant. Baltimore estimates the cost of the malware attack at $18 million, which includes not just remediation but hardening of the environment against future attacks.

How government and public institutions are responding to ransomware attacks

Legislation. The U.S. Senate passed the DHS Cyber Hunt and Incident Response Teams Act, which authorizes the Department of Homeland Security to send teams to help private and public entities battle ransomware attacks.
Cybersecurity insurance. In November 2019, the city of Baltimore approved the purchase of $20 million in cyber liability insurance to cover any additional disruptions to the city’s networks in 2020. Cyber liability insurance will typically pay the ransom and other extortion-related expenses, as well as recovery costs for restoring or replacing programs and data.
Mandatory training. After a coordinated attack on 23 Texas government organizations, the state announced it would require annual cybersecurity training for government employees. Dozens of other states are requiring security awareness programs as well. By teaching cybersecurity best practices, these programs aim to install proper habits and procedures for protecting information resources.

Strategies for mitigating the risk of ransomware

There is no reason to believe that any organization can block all ransomware attacks. But there are ways to minimize the damage of ransomware infections. For example, when ransomware hit Louisiana state government systems in November 2019, the state was able to quickly detect the attack and neutralize it before it caused serious damage — because back in December 2017, the state had established procedures for dealing with cyber attacks and the agencies were prepared.
The following measures can help you limit the impact of a ransomware attack:

Conclusion

A final tip: Don’t pay ransom. Paying ransom helps make these attacks a viable “business model” for the perpetrators. Moreover, according to Symantec, only 47% of organizations that pay the ransom actually get their files back. By establishing healthy habits, you can mitigate the risk of ransomware causing serious damage and recover without engaging with the attackers.
Original Article - Mitigating the Risk of Ransomware Attacks in the Public Sector
Handpicked related content:
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Wealth Formula Episode 172: Ask Buck

Catch the full episode: https://www.wealthformula.com/podcast/172-ask-buck/
Buck: Welcome back to the show everyone we have a number of questions today on Ask Buck so I am gonna get with it right away the first question is from Beau Cannington. He’s a member of Investor Club and Wealth Formula Network. Here's his question.
Beau Cannington: How much of a negative impact do you think that a rising interest rate environment will have on our commercial real estate investments and specifically the syndication investments with Western Wealth Capital? Thank you very much.
Buck: So Beau good question especially on paper right makes a lot of sense that potentially rising rates could be problematic for multifamily real estate or really for any kind of real estate. But let's go back to basics first because I think it's important, a lot of people don't have a good enough understanding of this in the first place which is when does leverage help you in the first place when does it help to borrow money from the bank? Well leverage only really helps you if you're borrowing at a rate that is less than your effective cap rate and what I mean by effective cap rate is you know you're gonna constantly drive net operating income into a property if you're increasing value of the property if you're in a value-add situation. That's what we do in the Western Wealth Capital opportunities that you're talking about. But that rate at which you borrow has to constantly and always be above your effective cap rate otherwise it's gonna hurt you. All leverage does is to simply amplify the directionality of your profit or losses. So just like it makes you profit more if your effective cap rate is greater than your interest rate, if that you know that income drops to a point where now your cap rate is actually below the interest rate, it's gonna magnify your losses. So that's at a very basic level hopefully that makes sense if it doesn't real issen to it because it's critically important and for some reason you know a lot of people don't pay attention to that especially people who are just getting into real estate for the first time it's really important. Now let's talk about the idea of interest rates themselves I mean the one that most people are familiar with is the one that's on the news all the time. It's a Fed Funds rate you know people call benchmark rate whatever. It's the one that's set by the Federal Reserve and the way I think about the Fed Funds rate is that it's an indicator for whether or not the economy is healthy it's it's sort of a barometer when the rates are getting hiked the economy is in pretty good shape and the Fed is trying to prevent it from getting too hot and to you know potentially prevent inflation. On the other side when the you know Fed lowers rates, like it just did by the way, it signals some level of concern about the economy it you know suggests that maybe there's some deflationary activity going and suggest that there's some recessionary activity going on. You know ultimately the Fed rate is you know it's set by the Fed and it's it's a tool of monetary stimulus to try to control inflation and ultimately mitigate recessionary cycles so it's a way for the Fed to control the economy you know it's one of the ways that they try to control the economy one of the monetary pulse. Now the Fed Funds rate does not equate to mortgage rates I I hear a lot of people you know like on social media and stuff talking about had funds rate goes the perfect time for me to go shopper shop a loan or something like that and well you should know a little bit more than that if you're in the business of real estate and taking loans out but you know I mean I'm seeing like syndicators do that. The Fed fund rate really affects short-term and variable adjusted rates really it's really an indication of what's going on right now in this economy in the very short term. And mortgage rates of course then are far more complex mortgage rates reflect sort of a longer-term health of the economy and they're probably there's a lot that goes into them but probably the thing that you need to watch the most is the ten-year Treasury which is much more a reflection of you know the long-term rates what the market thinks to the markets gonna be in the future right so if there is a belief that there is you know inflation on the horizon you probably see those rates start to rise. Inflation tends to rise when the economy's you know hot so anyway now again so what you should be looking at is the 10-year Treasury now I'm giving you a little bit of background rather than just answering Beau’s question initially but the good news right now is that the Fed fund rate was actually cut so it's actually not going up anyway so we don't need to worry about that right now but what we we also had a big dip in the tenured Treasury so our mortgage rates are very favorable right now as well now that's interesting because that happened before the Fed cut rates you know we recently closed on something within our Investor Club and got really good rates and that was before the that was because the treasury took a dive before it took a dive right before you know the hope this whole thing in the last week or so couple weeks where there's actually a Fed rate. But let's move back again and you know to Beau’s question. Say mortgage rates were going up what would that mean and how would that affect our investments? Now presumably that would be a suggestion that the 10-year Treasury as we talked about was going up which would also be suggestive of an inflationary environment. Now here's where it's really helpful to be invested in real estate like multifamily real estate which is of course my sweet spot. Inflation also means that we raise rents more right so in other words as rates go up so to our rent. So the ten-year Treasury is reflective of inflation when we and so the rates go up but so do rents proportionally and so theoretically we should be in good shape and not worry about it too much because it's really just an adjustment for inflation if you think about it that way. Bottom line is for me personally I don't worry too much about rates when it comes to our Wealth Formula accredited investor opportunities that we're doing and one of the reasons for that is we are incredibly aggressive about value add. So we're constantly in decompression mode as well and we're you know we're locked in to some good rates here too so. Now in addition if you look at the speed at which you know some of these companies work like Western Wealth Capitals the one you mentioned and they're forcing equity into these assets like you know incredibly fast so you're in a dynamic mode of decompressing cap rates in real time and that effectively again de-leverages the asset altogether. So if you found that confusing, listen to it again. But bottom line is if you take nothing else away from this I would tell you that interest rates in general mortgage rates will reflect inflation. So if inflation is going up rates are gonna go up and vice versa and so they tend to cancel each other out don't worry about it that's what I would tell you. If anything rates going down might be potentially more of a concern simply because that's a much more of an indication of an economy that's not healthy. Now we're doing you know BC classed multifamily I still think we're positioned very well so again I don't worry about it too much. Okay let's see next question from Chris Odegard another Investor Club guy and also another Wealth Formula Network guy so Chris here you go.
Chris Odegard: Hey Buck. Chris Odegard here in Kent Washington. My question relates to asset classes. If I remember correctly from Tom Wheelwright he talks about four asset classes: paper or commodities, real assets, real estate real assets aka real estate and businesses. So I believe that you know if I'm a shareholder in coca-cola that's paper but I'm also a private shareholder in a number of small start-up businesses so because my ownership of private shares and small businesses constitute a paper asset or a business asset? And if that's still a paper asset you know what makes you a have what makes you have an investment in business since most of the time you know if you're an owner or part owner of a small non publicly traded business it's usually their share so anyway I'm kind of struggling with the distinction between paper and a business asset classification so appreciate your help on that. Thanks.
Buck: So Chris I thinkx first of all let's back up and just say you know the reality is that these are you know these are just definitions right and there's a gray area between them and we can use them to guide us a little bit as we appropriate things into the right quote-unquote basket but you know we shouldn't get hung up on them too much but let's go back and review the definitions right so what are what are paper assets. So well let's talk about what real assets are so real assets are physical assets right and the thing that they are known for is that they have intrinsic worth due to their substance and property so precious metals commodities real estate land equipment natural resources these all have some kind of intrinsic value to them whereas paper assets would be assets where ownership’s defined only by paper like as you mentioned stocks and currencies and bonds and things like that. The reality is that in in some cases like you're talking about the definitions might not be as useful it might be a better idea to simply ask yourself in a sort of a common-sense way well what is it that I actually own? You know if you own businesses that are not asset heavy lots of you know and what I mean by assets heavy is like you know lots of machinery, stuff that you could liquidate, it's probably fair to put it in the you know the paper side of things. On the other hand if you have a business that as a significant balance sheet of stuff that could be liquidated you might actually put it in you know the real asset bucket. But I will tell you in knowing yours what you're talking about you invest in a lot of startups I would say that I personally would probably never consider an investment limited partner investment in a start-up as a real asset I mean I think the bottom line is that most of those businesses are not going to have a significant amount of equity or collateral to back your debt so there's not a lot to liquidate there's not a lot of intrinsic value in those businesses other than their ability to produce income. So that's where I would put that. Now what gives real estate and precious metals let's go back to that real status well it's ultimately again their inherent value. that it can't really be erased the way a stock price can go to zero. Or frankly if you talk about businesses what happens if the business that you're invested in Chris what if that goes to zero right? If there's no profit if there's no nothing to distribute etc it's not worth anything anymore right so that that to me is probably the biggest thing to distinguish. Although I should bring up I keep thinking about this as we're talking that you know I was listening to the Peter Schiff they still like to listen to I think he's a smart guy just you know he's a little stubborn and he's always thinking the this guy is falling which I don't I don't agree with him but you know he's on this big rampage against Bitcoin and he's been debating all these people about gold versus Bitcoin which I actually think it's kind of a silly debate because I think the gold and Bitcoin people should sort of you know be on the same side but I think you know it might be in part because Peter sells gold and it's a good opportunity to get in front of people, but one of his arguments about gold is that the reason that it has value is that it has intrinsic properties and those intrinsic properties are that it can be used you know to melt down and make stuff and I think there's true but the problem with this argument there in my opinion is that seriously for those of you who are out there like owning gold have you've owned a few ounces of gold and you store it somewhere are you seriously owning it because you know because you might be able to use it sometime or because somebody might be able to use it or are you using it because somebody thinks it has a value? I would argue that the reason you own it in most cases unless you're like a big jewelry buff or whatever is because somebody because you or you want somebody else to you know at some point pay you more for that then what you bought it for so in that respect it's not a whole lot different from like Bitcoin right like you know people the value of gold it has to do with the fact that it also has a monetary value it's really seen that way if you took that out of it and all of it was just a matter of it being jewelry it would not be worth as much as it is but anyway that's my take on that a little unrelated but I thought I would throw in that commentary. Next question let's see is from Ramin Rafie here we go.
Ramin Rafie: Hi Buck. I'm a physician general practitioner. I've been out of residency for about decade now. I have been an employed physician working for a larger corporation making house calls and a hospice director for their large healthcare organization which actually has recently been bought by an insurance company, that's a whole nother story. I actually went to medical school in California. And I've always wondered if it's feasible for me to open up my own kind of practice I don't know enough about the tax structures reimbursement etc, etc. I understand insurances are a big problem and you have to hire a lot of staff that's a waste of resources to strike to insurances but I was debating if solo practitioner doable perhaps direct primary care and if so is one better off just doing a cash face back to this and the legal structure of either having an LLC or an S corp or C Corp I don't know if you can operate on that that's gonna be I guess I need to talk to it accounts it's about that I figured I'd ask you and you might know you might not but I enjoy listening to your podcast it's amazing how many physicians up there are in the same boat. Thanks great time.
Buck: Alright so we do have a lot of physician listeners non-physicians to probably about in case you're wondering it's probably about but not just physicians but health care people right so you know physicians dentists and you know you know high doctors and you know all sorts of stuff, chiropractors and that's probably because well I've had a healthcare background myself on doing a few different kinds of surgery and stuff like that but thanks for the question. I'm gonna try to I mean there's a lot there and I think honestly the truth of the matter is I'm not necessarily an expert on all of these issues but you know some of the things I can answer I think will be relative relatively useful to anybody who's thinking about going on their own. First of all I'd say that if you're starting your own thing you know it an LLC is generally going to always be the best structure for a small business for maximum flexibility you can take, if for some reason you want to be taxed as a c-corp you could where you do an S selection so that's pretty easy. The answer your question of you know can you do it the answer is absolutely yes. There are solo practitioners out there now and you can do it and you could probably do it better and that's always generally been my philosophy when starting businesses usually I don't start businesses I'm you know I don't start businesses that have not in some way shape or form shown that they can be a success, I usually rip off somebody's idea and then pivot a little bit add a little bit something and executed and so I think to the extent that there are plenty of sole practitioners out there in California still I think it absolutely can be done. You know so your question about cash versus insurance based medicine just keeping it brief I'll tell you that it's not really an expertise of mine but by but what I can tell you is that coming out of the door with any business if it's just a cash business you're gonna have to advertise like crazy and you're gonna have to run it like a business which not everybody is ready for so the nice thing for physicians and dentists sometimes is that you know if you do take third party payers like you know these insurance companies they drive patients to your door so especially in the area of primary care there's a shortage so I don't think you'd have any trouble if you took insurance getting filled up really quickly and succeeding. Now as far as advice on how to move forward in general first you know again in this applies anybody who's starting a business and anything in my opinion, first of all finding somebody who's doing what you you know you want to do in another market and kind of copy them if you can reach out to them even better if they're not in a competing market but find in you’re case find a you know solo practitioner market that's similar to what you're trying to do and is showing a success and you know see if they're willing to spend some time with you I would offer to pay them because everybody's helpful until it's like damn I'm busy and this guy wants me to help him. But I think if you say hey now you get a successful thing there I'm looking for some help and you know looking for some consulting from a successful practice it might be useful. Another option of course is to go straight to a consultant and again this applies to every business in my opinion. Of course there's a lot of you know consultants out there. I had one for my first practice ultimately it was a cosmetic surgery business and again I ran this thing not like a medical thing, I didn't take any third-party insurance and stuff but I marketed like crazy I knew nothing about running a business or marketing when I started this the business I set out to start ended up looking nothing like the one I ended up with. What I ended up with was a lot better because I learned a lot on the job. But a lot of the back end things whether it's medical whether it's you know any kind of business or the same right I mean you've got to figure out how do you pay bills how do you set up all the systems accounting payroll and that for me where the consulting was like a really useful thing and I'm you know at the time I think I must have paid like twenty five thirty thousand dollars for and it seemed really expensive but I can tell you in any start-up situation you are much better off spending some money up front with someone holding your hand getting you started quickly and you know I have been you know. I literally have friends I have a couple of friends who've been trying to start up their own practices from multiple years now they could have been up and running in like three months if they just had paid somebody to get it done. So don't be that person you know anyway that's a message for everyone really if you have a problem, now remember this if you have a problem that you can write a check to someone to fix, you don't have a problem right? So that's the way you deal with this stuff don't spend all your time trying to deal with stupid little problems think of yourself as a you know is a thoroughbred right I mean you save yourself for you know high-value tasks. If you mess around and try to do everything yourself you're gonna end up worse I pretty much guarantee it, that goes for anyone starting any kind of business for the first time. So finally I would just say that I don't know a single I don't know a single health care provider in particular I know there's a lot of you out there with your own practice that once you have your own thing would ever go back to working for someone else or who'd ever want to go back for working for someone else, I know some of you have done it after you've sold your practice which is different you sitting on a huge chunk of cash but if you have any sort of entrepreneurial spirit and like the idea of not having limits on the upper end I would highly encourage it. All right so hopefully that's helpful and you know it's broadly I think it's broadly applicable to a lot of people who have ever contemplated any kind of entrepreneurial activities. So let's see the last one that's an actual voice one so let's do that from Ravi.
Ravi Ghanta: Hi buck this is Ravi Ghanta I just wanted to say thank you for all of your hard work and for providing such valuable information to this community. As part of the investor I've gained so much knowledge from you as well as from your guests on your podcast. Unfortunately I have not been able to attend the Meetup and I won't be able to go to the next meetup in Dallas in September, however I was wondering if you would consider creating a directory of some sort where those who are willing to provide their name their mailing address email address or even phone number to create a community where we can interact with each other you know perhaps by having this information we can even meet up with each other in different places informally, we can also discuss things you know we may all many of us are in the medical field and other specialties or other aspects of business and crafts developing contacts in that way just a thought. But once again thank you for your insightful information and I look forward to continuing to work with you. Thank you.
Buck: All right thanks Ravi. Ravi again is a member of the investor group now I don't think Ravi's part of Wealth Formula Network and that could be part of the confusion or not confusion but part of the question you answer the question which is, is there community that you could join or have you know or have some additional contact. The first thing I'm going to tell you there is that's really what Wealth Formula Network was really all about. So Wealth Formula Network is the online private community we have you know a very strong community there are a lot of people who are really just interested in connecting with one another it is of course that started out with the course and the course was with you know with Tom Wheelwright, Ken McElroy real estate guys bunch of guys I know sort of us gives you the bases gives you the foundation for things that we talk about and then we have these bi-weekly phone calls these bi-weekly phone calls are very useful they're not just phone calls they're zoom phone calls zoom video so we can see each other it's very personal and we have very in-depth conversation, people who are on in well formula Network often create relationships off line off community and that's certainly an option for you. In terms of online communities I would say that I probably wouldn't do anything else and the reason being that anytime you preside over an online community you kind of have to keep an eye on it and I I have well formula Network and that's really all I really want to focus in on I don't really want to you know monitor other sites. As far as you know people putting their information out and stuff I don't necessarily have a problem with that the thing that I worry about is if it's anywhere that people can access, I worry about your privacy because you know we have an extremely robust audience here including you know an accredited investor list of over a thousand people and if there's some like you know advisors registered advisors or you know people who are trying to get to those people they will spam you like crazy if they ever got a hold of that. But Ravi let me think about it because there could be a way to do you know to what you're talking about to a certain extent you know we certainly like I said we certainly already do this kind of thing and within Wealth Formula Network if that's of interest you check it out WealthFormulaRoadmap.com I think you'd probably really enjoy that if you enjoy the show. So all right I don't have any more video I don't have any recorded questions I have a couple of written ones I'm going to get to those the first one says is from Robert McLeod. He says I've been listening your podcast for the last couple years now I know you're a huge proponent of investing in real estate assets especially multifamily but I can't remember you've ever discussed mobile homes. I was wondering if you've looked into investing in or thought of mobile home park space. Thanks for the informative podcast. So it's a sensitive thing because I know there's a lot of people were interested in that people listen to this and friends of mine who are involved in this but you ask I'll answer. To be honest I'm not a big fan of that space right now here's why the cap rates on these things are approaching multifamily real estate right multifamily can always be improved significantly and attract higher level tenants and then areas get gentrified, they get improved I mean there's some improvement ability in mobile home parks right but it's really capped I mean think about it at some point you don't want to live in a damn mobile home anymore right. so here's a good example of you know how multifamily doesn't really have on that cap Chicago Lincoln Park is one of the like fanciest parts of Chicago's really expensive jam-packed full of mansions and stuff now, but there's also a bunch of apartment buildings that are over a hundred years old and you know forty years ago Lincoln Park was an absolute dump and it was dangerous and no one wanted to live there and then it got gentrified and all these places that were probably low income housing are now these incredibly luxurious apartments have been upgraded like crazy and now they are you know now they're multi-million dollar asset selling at ridiculous cap rates. Now tell me how do you do that with a mobile home community? You can't right. So at some point if people are doing well they want to move out of a mobile home park so you can't keep raising rents and expect people to live there so that's one reason so now so if you're capped on an appreciation of rents it's gonna cap your equity upside so now the syndicators out there that I'm seeing especially on the limited partners side are giving returns that frankly are inferior to what we're getting in multifamily an investor club by a longshot I know some of you like this area but I don't and I sure as hell would never invest in a limited partnership like this for returns that are less than double-digit again that's just me though. So finally let me just say this, my philosophy right now in general, buy quality assets don't buy crap okay. I see people posting stuff on Facebook about single family you know Class C Class D homes they bought we're supposed to cash flow like crazy and they you know all they have is problems now you know the idea is that these things might look good on numbers but when you add in the capex and paying for damages and you tenants I mean you may not cash flow at all people are losing money on this stuff left and right so there's a reason why these numbers look so good on paper because they're not good investments and people are trying to sell you them so bottom line is I'm not saying that mobile home parks are you know bad for everyone. I'm just saying that I personally look at the alternative and the alternatives from me are better. I prefer to focus on high quality assets and markets that are growing quickly right. I mean to me I mean it may be boring and repetitive what I do but I can tell you from personal experience it works and I think chasing yield in the idea of going to lower quality assets are going to tertiary markets is a very very bad idea because those are the markets those are the areas in my view that are going to suffer the most if and when there's a significant recessionary activity or market turnaround so hopefully that answers that. Next question Mark Dvorak. Hello can you talk about on your podcast about real estate professional? I feel like it's the ultimate green card to play in real estate as passive losses are you limited? Everyone only talks about this powerful designation briefly. Like the 750 hour rule, can two people count towards those? What are the max deductions and then he says for LP is what are the max deductions one can get without being a real estate professional, a show detailing all these options. Well let me just be brief about this, the reason people are briefed about it is because for the most part there the definition of real estate professional is this ok 750 hours of documented actual work in real estate like not just being a limited partner but you know looking for real estate acquiring you know talking to people whatever you got to have that 750 hours per year and it can't be two people no it has to be one person and you can't have anything that you're doing more of so it's not I've heard some people say they're gonna try to do it with a full-time job I just don't recommend it I think the IRS is gonna not take you seriously in that situation but you know you could try. In that situation of course the losses there's no cap to your losses. The beauty of it is what what you're talking about is say you have a spouse who has a W2 income that's active income but as you as a professional real estate professional all of the passive losses that you generate through depreciation where most people who are not real estate investors can only offset those against passive investments, you can offset that against active active income because your losses as a real estate professional your what would be passive loss has become activated. So if you've got $100,000 loss from real estate depreciation you could offset you know your hundred thousand dollars of your Weiss active income because you're filing jointly right. So that's that's the Holy Grail you're right I think it's a big deal and so but that's really all there is to it. I mean you have to find a CPA who can guide you on this you know I would recommend you know for somebody from WealthAbility and pretty much anybody there's gonna tell you all the right rules but really the issue with the that is you got to find a CPA who's going to tell you how to do it and then stand by you in in the event of an audit. An audit not it's not a bad you know it's not the end of the world it happens anybody's making money you gotta have somebody who is actually you know going to defend that successfully. So anyway that's it in terms of the caps about you know being a limited partner and what are some of the maximum deductions you can get without being a real estate professional the honest truth is that I don't I don't know that there's any really maximum deductions for real estate I mean listen if you have a hundred thousand dollars or two hundred thousand or a million dollars of passive income and you have those losses you have passive losses out of the same amount you could deduct it all so there's no cap at all. I mean the only thing I think there's a cap on I think charitable giving is about fifty percent you know charitable giving fifty percent but you know and then and then there's all your typical things that I don't you know I don't really get into about you know the basic accounting deductions and things like that for other things but I'll tell you from the standpoint of real estate there really is no cap on deductions, it's just you know it's what you have whatever if you're in the passive column as is a non real estate professional you could deduct all that and then the active side you could deduct all of your depreciation against all of your income. So that's pretty straightforward. Okay last question and it's from Betty and she said Buck I heard you talking about a bad drug reaction you had a Minneapolis. What was the drug that gave you the bad reaction yeah so let me let me tell you about that I am those last show I talked about that was my near-death experience thing where I thought I was gonna die, listen to this show you'll get the whole story but bottom line is as it turned out it was a CBD tincture. And I took some CBD for my back in in Santa Barbara and it worked really well for me and then I don't know what was in this bottle that I bought but it just gave me some sort of crazy out-of-body experience and I'm it wasn't like being stoned okay I I've been to college I know what that feels like was something was very wrong, anyway it was the CBD it's a long story. Bottom line is if you are interested in that story and how what I came about listened to show where I talk about this in the last show I think it's probably last week according where this is and you will you'll hear about that. By the way, I'll say that you know riffing off that last show I'm looking again those vintage cars to things that mattered the most of lessons that I had there were to make sure to take care of your family so look at Wealth Formula Banking make sure you you know get into that and and and try to you know align your investments with legacy to a certain extent that's one of my takeaways the other one was to try to have a little bit of fun here and and don't always push it away into delayed gratification. Okay that's it for the questions today and we will be right back.
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