RIPEMD-160 - Bitcoin Wiki

Bitcoin 11 Years - Achievements, Lies, and Bullshit Claims So Far - Tooootally NOT a SCAM !!!!

That's right folks, it's that time again for the annual review of how Bitcoin is going: all of those claims, predictions, promises .... how many have turned out to be true, and how many are completely bogus ???
Please post / link this on Bitcoin (I am banned there for speaking the truth, so I cannot do it) ... because it'a way past time those poor clueless mushrooms were exposed to the truth.
Anyway, without further ado, I give you the Bitcoin's Achievements, Lies, and Bullshit Claims So Far ...
.
Bitcoin Achievements so far:
  1. It has spawned a cesspool of scams (2000+ shit coin scams, plus 100's of other scams, frauds, cons).
  2. Many 1,000's of hacks, thefts, losses.
  3. Illegal Use Cases: illegal drugs, illegal weapons, tax fraud, money laundering, sex trafficking, child pornography, hit men / murder-for-hire, ransomware, blackmail, extortion, and various other kinds of fraud and illicit activity.
  4. Legal Use Cases: Steam Games, Reddit, Expedia, Stripe, Starbucks, 1000's of merchants, cryptocurrency conferences, Ummm ????? The few merchants who "accept Bitcoin" immediately convert it into FIAT after the sale, or require you to sell your coins to BitPay or Coinbase for real money, and will then take that money. Some of the few who actually accept bitcoin haven't seen a customer who needed to pay with bitcoin for the last six months, and their cashiers no longer know how to handle that.
  5. Contributing significantly to Global Warming.
  6. Wastes vasts amounts of electricity on useless, do nothing work.
  7. Exponentially raises electricity prices when big miners move into regions where electricity was cheap.
  8. It’s the first "currency" that is not self-sustainable. It operates at a net loss, and requires continuous outside capital to replace the capital removed by miners to pay their costs. It’s literally a "black hole currency."
  9. It created a new way for people living too far from Vegas to gamble all their life savings away.
  10. Spawned "blockchain technology", a powerful technique that lets incompetent programmers who know almost nothing about databases, finance, programming, or blockchain scam millions out of gullible VC investors, banks, and governments.
  11. Increased China's foreign trade balance by a couple billion dollars per year.
  12. Helped the FBI and other law enforcement agents easily track down hundreds of drug traffickers and drug users.
  13. Wasted thousands if not millions of man-hours of government employees and legislators, in mostly fruitless attempts to understand, legitimize, and regulate the "phenomenon", and to investigate and prosecute its scams.
  14. Rekindled the hopes of anarcho-capitalists and libertarians for a global economic collapse, that would finally bring forth their Mad Max "utopia".
  15. Added another character to Unicode (no, no, not the "poo" 💩 character ... that was my first guess as well 🤣)
  16. Provides an easy way for malware and ransomware criminals to ply their trade and extort hospitals, schools, local councils, businesses, utilities, as well as the general population.
.
Correct Predictions:
  1. 2015-12: "1,000 dollar in 2015", u/Luka_Magnotta, aka time traveler from the future, 31-Aug-2013, https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/1lfobc/i_am_a_timetraveler_from_the_future_here_to_beg/ (Technically, this prediction is WRONG because the highest price reached in 2015 was $495.56 according to CMC. Yes, Bitcoin reached $1,000 in 2013 and 2014, but that's NOT what the prediction says).
  2. 2017-12: "10,000 in 2017", u/Luka_Magnotta, aka time traveler from the future, 31-Aug-2013, https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/1lfobc/i_am_a_timetraveler_from_the_future_here_to_beg/
  3. 2018-04: $10,000 (by April 2018), Mike Novogratz, link #1: https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/, link #2: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-11-21/mike-novogratz-says-bitcoin-will-end-the-year-at-10-000
  4. 2018-12: $10,000 (by 2018), Tim Draper, link #1: https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/, link #2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AW5s6QkRRY
  5. Any others ? (Please tell me).
.
Bitcoin Promises / Claims / Price Predictions that turned out to be lies and bullshit:
  1. ANONYMOUS
  2. CENSORSHIP RESISTANT
  3. FRICTIONLESS
  4. TRUSTLESS
  5. UNCENSORABLE
  6. UNTRACEABLE
  7. SAFE
  8. SECURE
  9. YOU CANNOT LOSE
  10. NOT A SCAM
  11. PERMISSIONLESS
  12. GUARANTEED PRIVACY
  13. CANNOT BE SEIZED
  14. CANNOT BE CONFISCATED
  15. Be your own bank
  16. Regulation-proof
  17. NO MIDDLEMEN
  18. DECENTRALIZED
  19. Instantaneous transactions
  20. Fast transactions
  21. Zero / No transaction fees
  22. Low transaction fees
  23. A store of value
  24. A deflationary digital asset
  25. "A deflationary digital asset that no single human being can destroy."
  26. "an asset that is equally as dual use as a car, water, or any other traditional element that has existed."
  27. "Digital gold"
  28. Easy to use
  29. Cannot be stolen
  30. Cannot be hacked
  31. Can be mined by anyone
  32. Can be mined by anyone, even with an old computer or laptop
  33. Cannot be centralized
  34. Will return power back to the people.
  35. Not a Ponzi scam
  36. Not a Pyramid scam
  37. Never pay tax again
  38. Your gains cannot be taxed
  39. A currency
  40. An amazing new class of asset
  41. An asset
  42. A means to economic freedom
  43. A store of value
  44. The best investment the word has ever seen
  45. A great investment
  46. Efficient
  47. Scalable
  48. Stable
  49. Resilient
  50. Reliable
  51. Low energy
  52. Low risk
  53. Redistribute wealth to everybody
  54. No more have's and have not's
  55. No more US and THEM
  56. No more disadvantaged people
  57. No more RICH and POOR
  58. No more poor people
  59. Uses amazing new technology
  60. Uses ingenious new technology
  61. Satishi Nakamoto invented ...
  62. Segwit will solve all of Bitcoin's woes
  63. Lightning Network will solve all of Bitcoin's woes
  64. Limited by scarcity
  65. Can only go up in value
  66. Price cannot crash
  67. Has intrinsic value
  68. Value will always be worth more than cost to mine
  69. Adoption by investors is increasing exponentially
  70. Adoption by investors is increasing
  71. Adoption by merchants is increasing exponentially
  72. Adoption by merchants is increasing
  73. You are secure if you keep your coins on an exchange
  74. You are secure if you keep your coins in a hardware wallet
  75. You are secure if you keep your coins in an air-gapped Linux PC
  76. Will change the world
  77. "the next phase in human evolution"
  78. "Blockchain is more encompassing than the internet"
  79. Blockchain can solve previously unsolvable problems.
  80. "The only regulation we need is the blockchain"
  81. "Bank the unbanked"
  82. "To abolish financial slavery and the state's toxic monopoly on money."
  83. "To have better tools in the fight against the state violence and taxation."
  84. "To stamp information on a blockchain forever so we can bypass state censorship, copyrights, patents(informational monopolies) etc."
  85. Will destroy / overthrow FIAT
  86. Will destroy / overthrow the world's governments
  87. Will destroy / overthrow the banking system
  88. Will destroy / overthrow the world economies
  89. Will free people from tyranny
  90. Will give people financial freedom
  91. Will bring world peace
  92. Never going below $19K again
  93. Never going below $18K again
  94. Never going below $17K again
  95. Never going below $16K again
  96. Never going below $15K again
  97. Never going below $14K again
  98. Never going below $13K again
  99. Never going below $12K again
  100. Never going below $11K again
  101. Never going below $10K again
  102. Never going below $9K again
  103. Never going below $8K again
  104. Never going below $7K again
  105. Never going below $6K again
  106. Never going below $5K again
  107. Never going below $4K again
  108. Is NOT a Scam
  109. Hashing Power secures the Bitcoin network
  110. Untraceable, private transactions
  111. Guaranteed privacy
  112. Not created out of thin air
  113. Not created out of thin air by unregulated, unbacked entities
  114. Totally NOT a scam
  115. Is not used primarily by crimonals, drug dealers, or money launderers.
  116. 100% secure
  117. 2010 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  118. 2011 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  119. 2012 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  120. 2013 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  121. 2014 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  122. 2015 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  123. 2016 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  124. 2017 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  125. 2018 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  126. 2019 will be the "Year of Crypto"
  127. 2010: MASS ADOPTION any day now"
  128. 2011: MASS ADOPTION aany day now"
  129. 2012: MASS ADOPTION aaany day now"
  130. 2013: MASS ADOPTION aaaany day now"
  131. 2014: MASS ADOPTION aaaaany day now"
  132. 2015: MASS ADOPTION aaaaaany day now"
  133. 2016: MASS ADOPTION aaaaaaany day now"
  134. 2017: MASS ADOPTION aaaaaaaany day now"
  135. 2018: MASS ADOPTION aaaaaaaaany day now"
  136. 2019: MASS ADOPTION aaaaaaaaany day now"
  137. "Financial Freedom, bro."
  138. no single entity, government or individual, can alter or reverse its transactions
  139. insurance against the tyranny of state
  140. Bitcoin has come to destroy all governments and bring about the libertarian utopia of my dreams.
  141. The major issues in Bicoin's network will be fixed. This is still early days, Bitcoin has only been around for 2+ years.
  142. The major issues in Bicoin's network will be fixed. This is still early days, Bitcoin has only been around for 5+ years.
  143. The major issues in Bicoin's network will be fixed. This is still early days, Bitcoin has only been around for 7+ years.
  144. The major issues in Bicoin's network will be fixed. This is still early days, Bitcoin has only been around for 9+ years.
  145. 1,000's of predictions of skyrocketing and/or never falling prices
  146. Escape the petty rivalries of warring powers and nation states by scattering control among the many. The Bitcoin Cash debacle proves that even the most cryptographically secure plans of mice and men often go awry. Ref: https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/9zfhb6/like_theres_only_one_flaw_with_buttcoin_crash/ea8s11m
  147. People will NEVER be able to welch out of bets or deals again. Nov-2018, Ref: https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/9zvpl2/the_guy_who_made_the_1000_bet_that_btc_wouldnt/
  148. "Everything will be better, faster, and cheaper.", Brock Pierce, EOS.io shill video.
  149. "Everything will be more connected.", Brock Pierce, EOS.io shill video.
  150. "Everything will be more trustworthy.", Brock Pierce, EOS.io shill video.
  151. "Everything will be more secure.", Brock Pierce, EOS.io shill video.
  152. "Everything that exists is no-longer going to exist in the way that it does today.", Brock Pierce, EOS.io shill video.
  153. "Everything in this world is about to get better.", Brock Pierce, EOS.io shill video.
  154. You are a slave to the bankers
  155. The bankers print money and then you pay for it
  156. Bitcoin is The Peoples Money
  157. Bitcoin will set you free
  158. Bitcoin will set you free from the slavery of the banks and the government Ref: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/cd2q94/bitcoin_shall_set_you_free/
  159. ~~Bitcoin is "striking fear into the hearts of bankers, precisely because Bitcoin eliminates the need for banks. ~~, Mark Yusko, billionaire investor and Founder of Morgan Creek Capital, https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
  160. "When transactions are verified on a Blockchain, banks become obsolete.", Mark Yusko, billionaire investor and Founder of Morgan Creek Capital, https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
  161. SnapshillBot quotes from delusional morons:
  162. "A bitcoin miner in every device and in every hand."
  163. "All the indicators are pointing to a huge year and bigger than anything we have seen before."
  164. "Bitcoin is communism and democracy working hand in hand."
  165. "Bitcoin is freedom, and we will soon be free."
  166. "Bitcoin isn't calculated risk, you're right. It's downright and painfully obvious that it will consume global finance."
  167. "Bitcoin most disruptive technology of last 500 years"
  168. "Bitcoin: So easy, your grandma can use it!"
  169. "Creating a 4th Branch of Government - Bitcoin"
  170. "Future generations will cry laughing reading all the negativity and insanity vomited by these permabears."
  171. "Future us will thank us."
  172. "Give Bitcoin two years"
  173. "HODLING is more like being a dutiful guardian of the most powerful economic force this planet has ever seen and getting to have a say about how that force is unleashed."
  174. "Cut out the middleman"
  175. "full control of your own assets"
  176. "reduction in wealth gap"
  177. "no inflation"
  178. "cannot print money out of thin air"
  179. "Why that matters? Because blockchain not only cheaper for them, it'll be cheaper for you and everyone as well."
  180. "If you are in this to get rich in Fiat then no. But if you are in this to protect your wealth once the current monetary system collapse then you are protected and you'll be the new rich."
  181. "Theres the 1% and then theres the 99%. You want to be with the rest thats fine. Being different and brave is far more rewarding. No matter your background or education."
  182. "NO COINERS will believe anything they are fed by fake news and paid media."
  183. "I know that feeling (like people looking at you as in seeing a celebrity and then asking things they don't believe until their impressed)."
  184. "I literally walk round everyday looking at other people wondering why they even bother to live if they don't have Bitcoin in their lives."
  185. "I think bitcoin may very well be the best form of money we’ve ever seen in the history of civilization."
  186. "I think Bitcoin will do for mankind what the sun did for life on earth."
  187. "I think the constant scams and illegal activities only show the viability of bitcoin."
  188. "I think we're sitting on the verge of exponential interest in the currency."
  189. "I'm not using hyperbole when I say Satoshi found the elusive key to World Peace."
  190. "If Jesus ever comes back you know he's gonna be using Bitcoin"
  191. "If this idea was implemented with The Blockchain™, it would be completely flawless! Flawless I tell you!"
  192. "If you're the minimum wage guy type, now is a great time to skip food and go full ramadan in order to buy bitcoin instead."
  193. "In a world slipping more and more into chaos and uncertainty, Bitcoin seems to me like the last solid rock defeating all the attacks."
  194. "In this moment, I am euphoric. Not because of any filthy statist's blessing, but because I am enlightened by own intelligence."
  195. "Is Bitcoin at this point, with all the potential that opens up, the most undervalued asset ever?"
  196. "It won't be long until bitcoin is an everyday household term."
  197. "It's the USD that is volatile. Bitcoin is the real neutral currency."
  198. "Just like the early Internet!"
  199. "Just like the Trojan Horse of old, Bitcoin will reveal its full power and nature"
  200. "Ladies if your man doesnt have some bitcoin then he cant handle anything and has no danger sex appeal. He isnt edgy"
  201. "let me be the first to say if you dont have bitcoin you are a pussy and cant really purchase anything worldwide. You have no global reach"
  202. "My conclusion is that I see this a a very good thing for bitcoin and for users"
  203. "No one would do such a thing; it'd be against their self interests."
  204. "Ooh lala, good job on bashing Bitcoin. How to disrespect a great innovation."
  205. "Realistically I think Bitcoin will replace the dollar in the next 10-15 years."
  206. "Seperation of money and state -> states become obsolete -> world peace."
  207. "Some striking similarities between Bitcoin and God"
  208. "THANK YOU. Better for this child to be strangled in its crib as a true weapon for crypto-anarchists than for it to be wielded by toxic individuals who distort the technology and surrender it to government and corporate powers."
  209. "The Blockchain is more encompassing than the internet and is the next phase in human evolution. To avoid its significance is complete ignorance."
  210. "The bull run should begin any day now."
  211. "The free market doesn't permit fraud and theft."
  212. "The free market will clear away the bad actors."
  213. "The only regulation we need is the blockchain."
  214. "We are not your slaves! We are free bodies who will swallow you and puke you out in disgust. Welcome to liberty land or as that genius called it: Bitcoin."
  215. "We do not need the bankers for Satoshi is our saviour!"
  216. "We have never seen something so perfect"
  217. "We must bring freedom and crypto to the masses, to the common man who does not know how to fight for himself."
  218. "We verified that against the blockchain."
  219. "we will see a Rennaisnce over the next few decades, all thanks to Bitcoin."
  220. "Well, since 2006, there has been a infinite% increase in price, so..."
  221. "What doesn't kill cryptocurrency makes it stronger."
  222. "When Bitcoin awake in normally people (real people) ... you will have this result : No War. No Tax. No QE. No Bank."
  223. "When I see news that the price of bitcoin has tanked (and thus the market, more or less) I actually, for-real, have the gut reaction "oh that’s cool, I’ll be buying cheap this week". I never knew I could be so rational."
  224. "Where is your sense of adventure? Bitcoin is the future. Set aside your fears and leave easier at the doorstep."
  225. "Yes Bitcoin will cause the greatest redistribution of wealth this planet has ever seen. FACT from the future."
  226. "You are the true Bitcoin pioneers and with your help we have imprinted Bitcoin in the Canadian conscience."
  227. "You ever try LSD? Perhaps it would help you break free from the box of state-formed thinking you have limited yourself..."
  228. "Your phone or refrigerator might be on the blockchain one day."
  229. The banks can print money whenever they way, out of thin air, so why can't crypto do the same ???
  230. Central Banks can print money whenever they way, out of thin air, without any consequences or accounting, so why can't crypto do the same ???
  231. It's impossible to hide illegal, unsavory material on the blockchain
  232. It's impossible to hide child pornography on the blockchain
  233. Fungible
  234. All Bitccoins are the same, 100% identical, one Bitcoin cannot be distinguished from any other Bitcoin.
  235. The price of Bitcoin can only go up.
  236. "Bubbles are mathematically impossible in this new paradigm. So are corrections and all else", John McAfee, 7 Dec 2017 @ 5:09 PM,https://mobile.twitter.com/officialmcafee/status/938938539282190337
  237. Scarcity
  238. The price of Bitcoin can only go up because of scarcity / 21 million coin limit. (Bitcoin is open source, anyone can create thir own copy, and there are more than 2,000+ Bitcoin copies / clones out there already).
  239. immune to government regulation
  240. "a world-changing technology"
  241. "a long-term store of value, like gold or silver"
  242. "To Complex to Be Audited."
  243. "Old Auditing rules do not apply to Blockchain."
  244. "Old Auditing rules do not apply to Cryptocurrency."
  245. "Why Bitcoin has Value: SCARCITY.", PlanB, Coin Shill, 22-Mar-2019, https://medium.com/@100trillionUSD/modeling-bitcoins-value-with-scarcity-91fa0fc03e25
  246. "Bitcoin is the first scarce digital object the world has ever seen, it is scarce like silver & gold, and can be sent over the internet, radio, satellite etc.", PlanB, Coin Shill, 22-Mar-2019, https://medium.com/@100trillionUSD/modeling-bitcoins-value-with-scarcity-91fa0fc03e25
  247. "Surely this digital scarcity has value.", PlanB, Coin Shill, 22-Mar-2019, https://medium.com/@100trillionUSD/modeling-bitcoins-value-with-scarcity-91fa0fc03e25
  248. Bitcoin now at $16,600.00. Those of you in the old school who believe this is a bubble simply have not understood the new mathematics of the Blockchain, or you did not cared enough to try. Bubbles are mathematically impossible in this new paradigm. So are corrections and all else", John McAfee, 7 Dec 2017 @ 5:09 PM,https://mobile.twitter.com/officialmcafee/status/938938539282190337
  249. "May 2018 will be the last time we ever see $bitcoin under $10,000", Charlie Shrem, bitcoin advocate and convicted felon, 11:31 AM 3-May-2018, https://twitter.com/CharlieShrem/status/992109375555858433
  250. "Last dip ever.", AngeloBTC, 14 Oct 2018, https://mobile.twitter.com/AngeloBTC/status/1051710824388030464/photo/1
  251. "Bitcoin May Have Just Experienced its Final Shakeout Before a Big Rally", Joseph Young, coin shill, October 15, 2018 22:30 CET, https://www.ccn.com/bitcoin-may-have-just-experienced-its-final-shakeout-before-a-big-rally/
  252. Bitcoin would be a buy if the price fell under $5,000., Mohamed El-Erian, chief economic advisor at Allianz, 29-Jun-2018, https://www.ccn.com/bitcoin-a-buy-below-5000-says-allianz-chief-economic-adviso
  253. 2013-11-27: ""What is a Citadel?" you might wonder. Well, by the time Bitcoin became worth 1,000 dollar [27-Nov-2013], services began to emerge for the "Bitcoin rich" to protect themselves as well as their wealth. It started with expensive safes, then began to include bodyguards, and today, "earlies" (our term for early adapters), as well as those rich whose wealth survived the "transition" live in isolated gated cities called Citadels, where most work is automated. Most such Citadels are born out of the fortification used to protect places where Bitcoin mining machines are located. The company known as ASICminer to you is known to me as a city where Mr. Friedman rules as a king.", u/Luka_Magnotta, aka time traveler from the future, 31-Aug-2013, https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/1lfobc/i_am_a_timetraveler_from_the_future_here_to_beg/
  254. 2018-02: Bitcoin price to hit $27,000 by February 2018, Trace Mayer, host of the Bitcoin Knowledge Podcast, and self-proclaimed entrepreneur, investor, journalist, monetary scientist and ardent defender, Link #1: https://mobile.twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/917260836070154240/photo/1, Link #2: https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
  255. 2018-06: "Bitcoin will surpass $15,000 in June [2018]." John McAfee, May 25, 2018, https://bitcoinist.com/john-mcafee-says-bitcoin-will-surpass-15000-in-june/
  256. 2018-07: Bitcoin will be $28,000 by mid-2018, Ronnie Moas, Wall Street analyst and founder of Standpoint Research, http://helpfordream.com/2018/12/23/5-bitcoin-price-predictions-gone-wrong/.
  257. 2018-12: Bitcoin to reach a price of between 40,000 and 110,000 US dollars by the end of the 2017 bull run ... sometime before 2019, Masterluc, 26-May-2017, an anonymous "legendary" Bitcoin trader, Link #1: https://www.tradingview.com/chart/BTCUSD/YRZvdurN-The-target-of-current-bubble-lays-between-40k-and-110k/, Link #2: https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
  258. 2018-12: "There is no reason why we couldn’t see Bitcoin pushing $50,000 by December [2018]", Thomas Glucksmann, head of APAC business at Gatecoin, Link #1: https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
  259. 2018-12: Listen up you giggling cunts... who wants some?...you? you want some?...huh? Do ya? Here's the deal you fuckin Nerds - Butts are gonna be at 30 grand or more by next Christmas [2018] - If they aren't I will publicly administer an electronic dick sucking to every shill on this site and disappear forever - Until then, no more bans or shadow bans - Do we have a deal? If Butts are over 50 grand me and Lammy get to be mods. Deal? Your ole pal - "Skully" u/10GDeathBoner, 3-Feb-2018 https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/7ut1ut/listen_up_you_giggling_cunts_who_wants_someyou/
  260. 2018-12: 1 bitcoin = 1 Lambo. Remind me on Christmas eve [2018] u/10GDeathBoner, 3-Feb-2018, https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/7ut1ut/listen_up_you_giggling_cunts_who_wants_someyou/dtn2pna
  261. 2018-12: Been in BTC since 2014 and experienced many "deaths" of BTC... this too shall pass... $10k end of the year. [2018] u/Exxe2502, 30-Jun-2018 https://reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/8uur27/_/e1ioi5b/?context=1
  262. 2018-12: "Yale Alumni prediction - 30 Grand by Christmas [2018] - and you my friend... you will be the one eating Mcafee's dick in 2020. :) -:", u/SirNakamoto, 15-Jun-2018, https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/8r0tyh/fdic_agrees_to_cover_bitcoin_losses_in_event_of/e0nzxq7
  263. 2018-12: "Impossible For Bitcoin Not to Hit $10,000 by This Year (2018)", Mike Novogratz, a former Goldman Sachs Group Inc. partner, ex-hedge fund manager of the Fortress Investment Group and a longstanding advocate of cryptocurrency, 22-Sep-2018, https://www.newsbtc.com/2018/09/22/billionaire-novogratz-impossible-for-bitcoin-not-to-hit-10000-by-this-yea
  264. 2018-12: "[Bitcoin] between $13,800 and $14,800 [by end of 2018]", Fundstrat's Tom Lee, 13-Dec-2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/12/13/wall-streets-bitcoin-bull-tom-lee-we-are-tired-of-people-asking-us-about-target-prices.html
  265. 2018-12: "Bitcoin is going to be $15k-$20k by the end of the year (2018)", Didi Taihuttu, 1-Nov-2018, https://www.wsj.com/video/series/moving-upstream/the-bitcoin-gamble/85E3A4A7-C777-4827-9A3F-B387F2AB7654
  266. 2018-12: 2018 bitcoin price prediction reduced to $15,000 [was $25,000], Fundstrat's Tom Lee, 16-Nov-2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/11/16/wall-streets-crypto-bull-tom-lee-slashes-year-end-forecast-by-10000.html
  267. 2018-12: "I want to be clear, bitcoin is going to $25,000 by year end (2018)", Fundstrat's Tom Lee, 5-Jul-2018, https://www.cnbc.com/video/2018/07/05/tom-lee-i-want-to-be-clear-bitcoin-is-going-to-25000-by-year-end.html
  268. 2018-12: "Bitcoin could be at $40,000 by the end of 2018, it really easily could", Mike Novogratz, a former Goldman Sachs Group Inc. partner, ex-hedge fund manager of the Fortress Investment Group and a longstanding advocate of cryptocurrency, 21-Sep-2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lC1anDg2KU
  269. 2018-12: "Bitcoin will be priced around $50,000 by the end of the year (2018)", Bitcoin bull Arthur Hayes, co-founder and CEO of BitMEX, 29-Jun-2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/29/bitcoin-will-reach-50000-in-2018-says-founder-of-bitcoin-exchange.html
  270. 2018-12: "Bitcoin could definitely see $50,000 in 2018", Jeet Singh, cryptocurrency portfolio manager, speaking in January 2018 at the World Economic Forum in Davos, https://www.dcforecasts.com/new-prediction-says-bitcoin-hit-50000-2018/
  271. 2018-12: "Bitcoin will hit $100,000 this year (2018)", Kay Van-Petersen, an analyst at Saxo Bank, 17-Jan-2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/16/bitcoin-headed-to-100000-in-2018-analyst-who-forecast-2017-price-move.html
  272. 2018-12: "Bitcoin price to surpass the $100,000 mark by the end of 2018", Tone Vays, 21-Sep-2017, https://www.ccn.com/prominent-bitcoin-trader-price-is-heading-towards-100000-in-2018/
  273. 2018-12: "Bitcoin’s Price Will Surpass the $100,000 Mark by the End of 2018", Anonymous ("author" obviously too embarrassed to put his name to such bullshit "articles"), Oct-2018, https://investingpr.com/bitcoin-price-predictions-for-2018/
  274. 2018-12: "Our [2018] year-end bitcoin target is $7700.", James Stefurak, Founder at Monarch Research. See article: "Experts Forecast Bitcoin will rise by 2019", REF: https://hackernoon.com/experts-forecast-bitcoin-will-rise-by-2019-f4af8807036b?gi=dfea3c30d6d8
  275. 2018-12: "... we’ll see the price rally reaching its all-time of high of around $20K before the end of 2018", Khaled Khorshid, Co-Founder at Treon ICO. See article: "Experts Forecast Bitcoin will rise by 2019", REF: https://hackernoon.com/experts-forecast-bitcoin-will-rise-by-2019-f4af8807036b?gi=dfea3c30d6d8
  276. 2018-12: Bitcoin will end 2018 at the price point of $50,000, Ran Neuner, host of CNBC’s show Cryptotrader and the 28th most influential Blockchain insider according to Richtopia,https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
  277. Plus a whole host of wrong 2019 predictions (could not be included here because of post character limit issues), so please see my earlier post from 4 days ago: Ummm, remember those "Expert" Bitcoin Price Predictions for 2019 ..... ohhhhh dear ....., https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/eiqhq3/ummm_remember_those_expert_bitcoin_price/
.
But it's NOT all bad news, some claims and promises are yet to be determined:
  1. Never going below $3K again
  2. Never going below $2K again
  3. Never going below $1K again
  4. Any others ? Please let me know.
submitted by Crypto_To_The_Core to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Technical: Upcoming Improvements to Lightning Network

Price? Who gives a shit about price when Lightning Network development is a lot more interesting?????
One thing about LN is that because there's no need for consensus before implementing things, figuring out the status of things is quite a bit more difficult than on Bitcoin. In one hand it lets larger groups of people work on improving LN faster without having to coordinate so much. On the other hand it leads to some fragmentation of the LN space, with compatibility problems occasionally coming up.
The below is just a smattering sample of LN stuff I personally find interesting. There's a bunch of other stuff, like splice and dual-funding, that I won't cover --- post is long enough as-is, and besides, some of the below aren't as well-known.
Anyway.....

"eltoo" Decker-Russell-Osuntokun

Yeah the exciting new Lightning Network channel update protocol!

Advantages

Myths

Disadvantages

Multipart payments / AMP

Splitting up large payments into smaller parts!

Details

Advantages

Disadvantages

Payment points / scalars

Using the magic of elliptic curve homomorphism for fun and Lightning Network profits!
Basically, currently on Lightning an invoice has a payment hash, and the receiver reveals a payment preimage which, when inputted to SHA256, returns the given payment hash.
Instead of using payment hashes and preimages, just replace them with payment points and scalars. An invoice will now contain a payment point, and the receiver reveals a payment scalar (private key) which, when multiplied with the standard generator point G on secp256k1, returns the given payment point.
This is basically Scriptless Script usage on Lightning, instead of HTLCs we have Scriptless Script Pointlocked Timelocked Contracts (PTLCs).

Advantages

Disadvantages

Pay-for-data

Ensuring that payers cannot access data or other digital goods without proof of having paid the provider.
In a nutshell: the payment preimage used as a proof-of-payment is the decryption key of the data. The provider gives the encrypted data, and issues an invoice. The buyer of the data then has to pay over Lightning in order to learn the decryption key, with the decryption key being the payment preimage.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Stuckless payments

No more payments getting stuck somewhere in the Lightning network without knowing whether the payee will ever get paid!
(that's actually a bit overmuch claim, payments still can get stuck, but what "stuckless" really enables is that we can now safely run another parallel payment attempt until any one of the payment attempts get through).
Basically, by using the ability to add points together, the payer can enforce that the payee can only claim the funds if it knows two pieces of information:
  1. The payment scalar corresponding to the payment point in the invoice signed by the payee.
  2. An "acknowledgment" scalar provided by the payer to the payee via another communication path.
This allows the payer to make multiple payment attempts in parallel, unlike the current situation where we must wait for an attempt to fail before trying another route. The payer only needs to ensure it generates different acknowledgment scalars for each payment attempt.
Then, if at least one of the payment attempts reaches the payee, the payee can then acquire the acknowledgment scalar from the payer. Then the payee can acquire the payment. If the payee attempts to acquire multiple acknowledgment scalars for the same payment, the payer just gives out one and then tells the payee "LOL don't try to scam me", so the payee can only acquire a single acknowledgment scalar, meaning it can only claim a payment once; it can't claim multiple parallel payments.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Non-custodial escrow over Lightning

The "acknowledgment" scalar used in stuckless can be reused here.
The acknowledgment scalar is derived as an ECDH shared secret between the payer and the escrow service. On arrival of payment to the payee, the payee queries the escrow to determine if the acknowledgment point is from a scalar that the escrow can derive using ECDH with the payer, plus a hash of the contract terms of the trade (for example, to transfer some goods in exchange for Lightning payment). Once the payee gets confirmation from the escrow that the acknowledgment scalar is known by the escrow, the payee performs the trade, then asks the payer to provide the acknowledgment scalar once the trade completes.
If the payer refuses to give the acknowledgment scalar even though the payee has given over the goods to be traded, then the payee contacts the escrow again, reveals the contract terms text, and requests to be paid. If the escrow finds in favor of the payee (i.e. it determines the goods have arrived at the payer as per the contract text) then it gives the acknowledgment scalar to the payee.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Payment decorrelation

Because elliptic curve points can be added (unlike hashes), for every forwarding node, we an add a "blinding" point / scalar. This prevents multiple forwarding nodes from discovering that they have been on the same payment route. This is unlike the current payment hash + preimage, where the same hash is used along the route.
In fact, the acknowledgment scalar we use in stuckless and escrow can simply be the sum of each blinding scalar used at each forwarding node.

Advantages

Disadvantages

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

To address concerns about my identity

Doubts about my identity seem to crop up, so I like to address all those once more. Hopefully in a comprehensive way.
First of all, to explain the situation from my article again, originstamp.org is my go-to service. Usually, 24h is plenty and suffices to timestamp everything.
But in this case, Core went quickly ahead with release information, which made the 24h window (due to fees) too small to conclusively prove ownership on the BTC chain.
But let's have a look in detail. This is the text that I wrote:
BitcoinABC does not check for duplicate inputs when processing a block, only when inserting a transaction into the mempool. This is dangerous as blocks can be generated with duplicate transactions and then sent through e.g. compact block missing transactions and avoid hitting the mempool, creating money out of thin air. awemany 
If you SHA256 this, it calculates to: 5c45a1ba957362a2ba97c9f8c48d4d59d4fa990945b7094a8d2a98c3a91ed9b6
Exhibit A: I timestamped that here: https://originstamp.org/s/5c45a1ba957362a2ba97c9f8c48d4d59d4fa990945b7094a8d2a98c3a91ed9b6
Note that there is a timestamp when it entered their system, which is before anything else became public and which is:
17.9.2018, 14:54:19 CEST
It shows it in your local time zone in your browser, a fact that Peter Todd apparently tripped over as well: https://archive.fo/W1gdf
Scroll down to "Submission to OriginStamp" at the end.
This timestamp is, however, just from their service and thus centralized. But if you think I faked that, that would mean that I must have hacked their service in time to do so. In the last few days. Furthermore, the window for this hack would be quite small, as there is also a later submission into the blockchain. So if you doubt this information alone, it would mean I'd had to hack the service in time (within a few hours window) just to claim this identity, leave no trace of all of this, face the risk of being called out by the true finder of the bug (who'd be different then) and write this long article ...
But there's more:
Exhibit B: For anyone who is a member of the BU slack, I posted a message that was the above hash (as I said in my medium article) and which is still sitting unedited on the slack as well, in the #general channel. There are likely several hundred members of this slack, and all of them who read it should have seen this message in time. I believe there are also (well-behaved) Core supporters in there. I would need to have hacked that service in an undetected way as well and fool or collude with all active members therein as well. That now creates a pretty big collusion, don't you think?
Exhibit C: Finally, let me close with this PGP signed message. I created a PGP key just to keep my identity separate, at least for a while, from my main pseudonym awemany. And in the email I send out to the developers, I have added myself as a recipient. Even though the message has not been signed (I didn't see any reason to do so at the time of release), my full key id is still in this message. And that is, as far as I know, a 128-bit hash for which it is practically impossible to find a preimage for. This explicit 'encrypt-to-self' is because I fucked up with PGP encryption in the past (because, as I say in my article, mistakes just happen) and I wanted to at least be able to read my own encrypted message later. I have created sitations for myself where I wasn't able to read my own encrypted emails. Yes, call me a crypto noob, say PEBKAC or whatever, it is exactly an example of why I am saying that I am not perfect but so is no one else!
Here is this message, which I am sure anyone owning the original disclosure email is happy for you to confirm that it is the same key id:
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA512 This messsage is signed by the beardnboobies GPG key that I created just in time for the vulnerability disclosure. In reality, I am awemany on reddit and elsewhere. -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- iQGzBAEBCgAdFiEERGszUXtt2s3Wfkt1yydp8d93NcQFAlumBkAACgkQyydp8d93 NcQvegwAmcfqKSp/RZVE6HIyN9gbxa5oz2YFaaoeVCoQTsDZPX08zjBjp7jzMUGW izraVk+yOz8Yxdv7re8G+CBqnpgfpNvMoHPe75bgoyKzavTtukVSScDUHZ9Tu9D7 xQcfWnwZhsUjsTsxFD7B6PLAWzeh7cA3d0xUwrFJoa//hlOylnlC/76cbBspqSll ispvQgBcEM6NfKvmCTb9LItts2/QrXX891LK9I4vPC1WpOrXPA9lNnuuP8/S/ey9 O7iqwW+oCwGKLELQJE58hgwt7keQukrPEfwUtBXACW77gtk1dXaxRL5RqCkmMsMn rBMkTGmjDit+AVE/5oW+flds8/Hq+kQDXUZfaLbnOrleW50LTTi+etA/PPhHxe45 CUD7Jm8d2LbTIjFWsZT/Rq2Djsy3gBcHeKqFMRXEBI7WoFe431q38gVSyfvbCrPR R4AJsg2eGgysu0E/SZecHHULc4CU6RdLmCRrORRSv1T9tOyJcRpfwRlE4FnT9LTC /+5v9mXI =k2oE -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- 
And here is the public key which matches that key Id and which has likewise not been made public yet:
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- mQGNBFufufgBDADJ3N5xocCOSyRrF42nvrujUZXRPnaq+X3E0GjNlCwuCFZELNE9 l950cR4l+sNFbjcvWtlCgAdHPAggED3ZeutTO3fAIClN+LOgnyEF4txjdG72j9L4 NnCVMfKhT2yc7JZQh3lS+GHFSBS8joLq09GxllTORvdawuW34yzV4rzFZZ3NfK+/ 8BtNAf+nXvtafugw4Nlln5LPvGna9bmh/74RlZTAJeV52a/WsucBQ7kVuWTAERMy N+DuvUIxh7gG9KbSQXsPQ+1ZleO9+nWJs4pgX3ro6ZRMYvN9jeJsDjx2uQoL77zM RwMKNis5ifxnkHmExOG01SQxz3j9tw1anC8dFi2zs9jlr+qjUofSUT0RctKNJlga BgDV1dsu8dg11xxo4slH93D5LqJJs3lg+RjxHeWE6Oxvpz4SQpU+sLT4T73xOh/d GDw4UmLMUgKjjlYexVhlNk6FUamAkpYzuTgN35AeUt1iGj9D9XAbbi0G3MjKYSX6 tPkBC5h7XIGDzGcAEQEAAbQuQmVhcmQnbidib29iaWVzIDxiZWFyZG5ib29iaWVz QHByb3Rvbm1haWwuY29tPokB1AQTAQoAPhYhBERrM1F7bdrN1n5LdcsnafHfdzXE BQJbn7n4AhsDBQkDwmcABQsJCAcCBhUKCQgLAgQWAgMBAh4BAheAAAoJEMsnafHf dzXEi0gMAL0StgXSH4mbHPeyj0pJOmzOpEsfm7S05EKoGnMzmB/ZfCxag9YvDSSQ Jz28jOmPIrnLLkuOFcf0BnSKmys2WbEpGm5SgRU0anSTiiaTy2RjPa8eC34F6X/q LjgJ6J4hvOoDkQAjOzfspayRjRmFewNzssMHn6JC2NWvP+8+nClsJA959E9rxJ5F xaPmPZ9g4AJFah/vpRXbv44JQGbjr42CdB2JUTYW3rd7WjYFdcGcPU0UQhRQSflL 2ZOCw8bJCdPRRXpy2xTewTPE4eVcrclvmbKDhDbDNkY9cqDSPqag2JG8GoPsl3Ym 33uwzN1Y5qkocfGoVxr3eEEFQgkPnqX27OyGAL1+MoEOYuLuhUaNX2E/WmPZwtU3 E5JdjdIRfVfzI+oWs6Mfn1mbxeePBikjHgNgr4vs2+DkujeenS8UsD5Y6qrk9Ypt Erh5GRT0BauSSV52U3mEboMyxRHriObFT+BQAK0cJ4ZZ9aAUVLZcC4TXps2PKcjZ ozJYgvFm1rkBjQRbn7n4AQwAx7JiWJSuwAidK0AcPS2kt5gpzsESgxq1qyoeELYg tNb6G2SihbFj4hVMjc8Ol+a0wtcd+3D7Wcyu5EDbfnIydfmytIvF6CABWCkKtulG lxKSydMg16QGMwWixqTLRo1FoCdAzvKJktTshIlARoRt1cII/5n0C+Ny33kdm809 c+5EPFW22Hu5cNZR6xjYkONoM+Gw9JVIo5O9DY1l2s7qaQhnnTQDMBJLZjtOVFZF l/QQjnM5SJZr7lkzNMOgdA3saCbjk7NVMnV8ledLHYZguR3lDfsfdwWvw9Q3tEp9 Ii5P3AHzzV7eu0g6T7xpjV4LNssP1abvrBBd/RFfA6A3ec9wXEWTk2ewXpZLkicm 9VBy3nsz5bedoAvcyTVB0HF80yHbo99eSwEUenlrs0K0Yv97hxJ2ioPrhx4y7M9Q XRWRXFRaLBgLT5GxvIs9jRWJq7jwtKknA7GSun06UFKnOmiT81dmVf4Dne1F9y/R U7ld9Doo7IARUYP11/twEh5HABEBAAGJAbwEGAEKACYWIQREazNRe23azdZ+S3XL J2nx33c1xAUCW5+5+AIbDAUJA8JnAAAKCRDLJ2nx33c1xMiGDACbqHLuXMZ2937O aDfuchIYJ7BoqLiY+Po0V78jenYcx4pXXnau2rL44f02B6nV5RK21b+PwFDX+SMh usQfAYdBBRxIb0uDePKx2/Vb0UC5yb456eprYBXOIN7odl0J68PpjUQik5kqizig n/vyrIMMQehnFFee88xdSUYK495I6URJtIp6YLCYoalFs49l3szLJZK57OcCmfsR gzQbBIsPqQ7uqKZlGYZY9a/PYEZd3Lb6qLF693jZyNjDZ8IIfBjvJa3ZwJiTtNXi NknfmW2KcokFljOa5Fvs6Gu11Q9KpbVRpkKeHF79TSN5lPSwvBjsBbx9j4KoFBum yNNQTclRMe+AWHfcnoIXooFemiv27n6HEwoFEyoKm3ita1V+RiDuZ1e3FEA4zUPO XlZv6e7p+Cd0coP4FDWR5mq1ck+SOFoFuqNrqpEIumrHEC4wKcIA7iy/jJ5frgab UjEcFa/MBAaZ7If9+3kHh2kpfPwLOT+7Mm7i9kD1Yu3UBvwoYOE= =DyTh -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- 
I am not going to disclose the original email just yet, because there is exploit code in there. Even though I think that exploit code is quite simple and will likely not do harm, there is no reason to add more risk and this could also still be used against me by trolls by being called irresponsible. So I hope folks understand why I refrain from that for now.
submitted by awemany to btc [link] [comments]

Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

There is no denying that the Quantum revolution is coming. Security protocols for the internet, banking, telecommunications, etc... are all at risk, and your Bitcoins (and alt-cryptos) are next!
This article is not really about quantum computers[i], but, rather, how they will affect the future of cryptocurrency, and what steps a smart investor will take. Since this is a complicated subject, my intention is to provide just enough relevant information without being too “techy.”

The Quantum Evolution

In 1982, Nobel winning physicist, Richard Feynman, hypothesized how quantum computers[ii] would be used in modern life.
Just one year later, Apple released the “Apple Lisa”[iii] – a home computer with a 7.89MHz processor and a whopping 5MB hard drive, and, if you enjoy nostalgia, it used 5.25in floppy disks.
Today, we walk around with portable devices that are thousands of times more powerful, and, yet, our modern day computers still work in a simple manner, with simple math, and simple operators[iv]. They now just do it so fast and efficient that we forget what’s happening behind the scenes.
No doubt, the human race is accelerating at a remarkable speed, and we’ve become obsessed with quantifying everything - from the everyday details of life to the entire universe[v]. Not only do we know how to precisely measure elementary particles, we also know how to control their actions!
Yet, even with all this advancement, modern computers cannot “crack” cryptocurrencies without the use of a great deal more computing power, and since it’s more than the planet can currently supply, it could take millions, if not billions, of years.
However, what current computers can’t do, quantum computers can!
So, how can something that was conceptualized in the 1980’s, and, as of yet, has no practical application, compromise cryptocurrencies and take over Bitcoin?
To best answer this question, let’s begin by looking at a bitcoin address.

What exactly is a Bitcoin address?

Well, in layman terms, a Bitcoin address is used to send and receive Bitcoins, and looking a bit closer (excuse the pun), it has two parts:[vi]
A public key that is openly shared with the world to accept payments. A public key that is derived from the private key. The private key is made up of 256 bits of information in a (hopefully) random order. This 256 bit code is 64 characters long (in the range of 0-9/a-f) and further compressed into a 52 character code (using RIPEMD-160).
NOTE: Although many people talk about Bitcoin encryption, Bitcoin does not use Encryption. Instead, Bitcoin uses a hashing algorithm (for more info, please see endnote below[vii]).
Now, back to understanding the private key:
The Bitcoin address “1EHNa6Q4Jz2uvNExL497mE43ikXhwF6kZm” translates to a private key of “5HpHagT65TZzG1PH3CSu63k8DbpvD8s5ip4nEB3kEsreAnchuDf” which further translates to a 256 bit private key of “0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001” (this should go without saying, but do not use this address/private key because it was compromised long ago.) Although there are a few more calculations that go behind the scenes, these are the most relevant details.
Now, to access a Bitcoin address, you first need the private key, and from this private key, the public key is derived. With current computers, it’s classically impractical to attempt to find a private key based on a public key. Simply put, you need the private key to know the public key.
However, it has already been theorized (and technically proven) that due to private key compression, multiple private keys can be used to access the same public key (aka address). This means that your Bitcoin address has multiple private keys associated with it, and, if someone accidentally discovers or “cracks” any one of those private keys, they have access to all the funds in that specific address.
There is even a pool of a few dedicated people hunting for these potential overlaps[viii], and they are, in fact, getting very efficient at it. The creator of the pool also has a website listing every possible Bitcoin private key/address in existence[ix], and, as of this writing, the pool averages 204 trillion keys per day!
But wait! Before you get scared and start panic selling, the probability of finding a Bitcoin address containing funds (or even being used) is highly unlikely – nevertheless, still possible!
However, the more Bitcoin users, the more likely a “collision” (finding overlapping private/public key pairs)! You see, the security of a Bitcoin address is simply based on large numbers! How large? Well, according to my math, 1.157920892373x1077 potential private keys exist (that number represents over 9,500 digits in length! For some perspective, this entire article contains just over 14,000 characters. Therefore, the total number of Bitcoin addresses is so great that the probability of finding an active address with funds is infinitesimal.

So, how do Quantum Computers present a threat?

At this point, you might be thinking, “How can a quantum computer defeat this overwhelming number of possibilities?” Well, to put it simple; Superposition and Entanglement[x].
Superposition allows a quantum bit (qbit) to be in multiple states at the same time. Entanglement allows an observer to know the measurement of a particle in any location in the universe. If you have ever heard Einstein’s quote, “Spooky Action at a Distance,” he was talking about Entanglement!
To give you an idea of how this works, imagine how efficient you would be if you could make your coffee, drive your car, and walk your dog all at the same time, while also knowing the temperature of your coffee before drinking, the current maintenance requirements for your car, and even what your dog is thinking! In a nutshell, quantum computers have the ability to process and analyze countless bits of information simultaneously – and so fast, and in such a different way, that no human mind can comprehend!
At this stage, it is estimated that the Bitcoin address hash algorithm will be defeated by quantum computers before 2028 (and quite possibly much sooner)! The NSA has even stated that the SHA256 hash algorithm (the same hash algorithm that Bitcoin uses) is no longer considered secure, and, as a result, the NSA has now moved to new hashing techniques, and that was in 2016! Prior to that, in 2014, the NSA also invested a large amount of money in a research program called “Penetrating Hard Targets project”[xi] which was used for further Quantum Computer study and how to break “strong encryption and hashing algorithms.” Does NSA know something they’re not saying or are they just preemptively preparing?
Nonetheless, before long, we will be in a post-quantum cryptography world where quantum computers can crack crypto addresses and take all the funds in any wallet.

What are Bitcoin core developers doing about this threat?

Well, as of now, absolutely nothing. Quantum computers are not considered a threat by Bitcoin developers nor by most of the crypto-community. I’m sure when the time comes, Bitcoin core developers will implement a new cryptographic algorithm that all future addresses/transactions will utilize. However, will this happen before post-quantum cryptography[xii]?
Moreover, even after new cryptographic implementation, what about all the old addresses? Well, if your address has been actively used on the network (sending funds), it will be in imminent danger of a quantum attack. Therefore, everyone who is holding funds in an old address will need to send their funds to a new address (using a quantum safe crypto-format). If you think network congestion is a problem now, just wait…
Additionally, there is the potential that the transition to a new hashing algorithm will require a hard fork (a soft fork may also suffice), and this could result in a serious problem because there should not be multiple copies of the same blockchain/ledger. If one fork gets attacked, the address on the other fork is also compromised. As a side-note, the blockchain Nebulas[xiii] will have the ability to modify the base blockchain software without any forks. This includes adding new and more secure hashing algorithms over time! Nebulas is due to be released in 2018.

Who would want to attack Bitcoin?

Bitcoin and cryptocurrency represent a threat to the controlling financial system of our modern economy. Entire countries have outright banned cryptocurrency[xiv] and even arrested people[xv], and while discrediting it, some countries are copying cryptocurrency to use (and control) in their economy[xvi]!
Furthermore, Visa[xvii], Mastercard[xviii], Discover[xix], and most banks act like they want nothing to do with cryptocurrency, all the while seeing the potential of blockchain technology and developing their own[xx]. Just like any disruptive technology, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies have their fair share of enemies!
As of now, quantum computers are being developed by some of the largest companies in the world, as well as private government agencies.
No doubt, we will see a post-quantum cryptography world sooner than most realize. By that point, who knows how long “3 letter agencies” will have been using quantum technology - and what they’ll be capable of!

What can we do to protect ourselves today?

Of course, the best option is to start looking at how Bitcoin can implement new cryptographic features immediately, but it will take time, and we have seen how slow the process can be just for scaling[xxi].
The other thing we can do is use a Bitcoin address only once for outgoing transactions. When quantum computers attack Bitcoin (and other crypto currencies), their first target will be addresses that have outgoing transactions on the blockchain that contain funds.
This is due to the fact that when computers first attempt to crack a Bitcoin address, the starting point is when a transaction becomes public. In other words, when the transaction is first signed – a signed transaction is a digital signature derived from the private key, and it validates the transaction on the network. Compared to classical computers, quantum computers can exponentially extrapolate this information.
Initially, Bitcoin Core Software might provide some level of protection because it only uses an address once, and then sends the remaining balance (if any) to another address in your keypool. However, third party Bitcoin wallets can and do use an address multiple times for outgoing transactions. For instance, this could be a big problem for users that accept donations (if they don’t update their donation address every time they remove funds). The biggest downside to Bitcoin Core Software is the amount of hard-drive space required, as well as diligently retaining an up-to-date copy of the entire blockchain ledger.
Nonetheless, as quantum computers evolve, they will inevitably render SHA256 vulnerable, and although this will be one of the first hash algorithms cracked by quantum computers, it won’t be the last!

Are any cryptocurrencies planning for the post-quantum cryptography world?

Yes, indeed, there are! Here is a short list of ones you may want to know more about:

Full disclosure:

Although I am in no way associated with any project listed above, I do hold coins in all as well as Bitcoin, Litecoin and many others.
The thoughts above are based on my personal research, but I make no claims to being a quantum scientist or cryptographer. So, don’t take my word for anything. Instead, do your own research and draw your own conclusions. I’ve included many references below, but there are many more to explore.
In conclusion, the intention of this article is not to create fear or panic, nor any other negative effects. It is simply to educate. If you see an error in any of my statements, please, politely, let me know, and I will do my best to update the error.
Thanks for reading!

References

[i] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHMJCUmq28 – A great video explaining quantum computers.
[ii] https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_97/journal/vol4/spb3/ - A brief history of quantum computing.
[iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Lisa - More than you would ever want to know about the Apple Lisa.
[iv] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpIctyqH29Q&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtNlUrzyH5r6jN9ulIgZBpdo - Want to learn more about computer science? Here is a great crash course for it!
[v] https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/quantify - What does quantify mean?
[vi] https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Private_key - More info about Bitcoin private keys.
[vii] https://www.securityinnovationeurope.com/blog/page/whats-the-difference-between-hashing-and-encrypting - A good example of the deference between Hash and Encryption
[viii] https://lbc.cryptoguru.org/stats - The Large Bitcoin Collider.
[ix] http://directory.io/ - A list of every possible Bitcoin private key. This website is a clever way of converting the 64 character uncompressed key to the private key 128 at a time. Since it is impossible to save all this data in a database and search, it is not considered a threat! It’s equated with looking for a single needle on the entire planet.
[x] https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/quantum-computing-101#Superposition-and-entanglement – Brief overview of Superposition and Entanglement.
[xi] https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/nsa-seeks-to-build-quantum-computer-that-could-crack-most-types-of-encryption/2014/01/02/8fff297e-7195-11e3-8def-a33011492df2_story.html?utm_term=.e05a9dfb6333 – A review of the Penetrating Hard Targets project.
[xii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography - Explains post-quantum cryptography.
[xiii] https://www.nebulas.io/ - The nebulas project has some amazing technology planned in their roadmap. They are currently in testnet stage with initial launch expected taking place in a few weeks. If you don’t know about Nebulas, you should check them out. [xiv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legality_of_bitcoin_by_country_or_territory - Country’s stance on crypto currencies.
[xv] https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/30/venezuela-is-one-of-the-worlds-most-dangerous-places-to-mine-bitcoin.html - Don’t be a miner in Venezuela!
[xvi] http://www.newsweek.com/russia-bitcoin-avoid-us-sanctions-cryptocurrency-768742 - Russia’s plan for their own crypto currency.
[xvii] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2018/01/05/visa-locks-bitcoin-payment-cards-crackdown-card-issue - Recent attack from visa against crypto currency.
[xviii] https://www.ccn.com/non-government-digital-currency-junk-says-mastercard-ceo-rejecting-bitcoin/ - Mastercards position about Bitcoin.
[xix] http://www.livebitcoinnews.com/discover-joins-visa-mastercard-barring-bitcoin-support/ - Discovers position about Bitcoin.
[xx] http://fortune.com/2017/10/20/mastercard-blockchain-bitcoin/ - Mastercard is making their own blockchain.
[xxi] https://bitcoincore.org/en/2015/12/21/capacity-increase/ - News about Bitcoin capacity. Not a lot of news…
[xxii] https://learn.iota.org/faq/what-makes-iota-quantum-secure - IOTA and quantum encryption.
[xxiii] https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/191.pdf - The whitepaper of Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme
[xxiv] https://cardanoroadmap.com/ - The Cardano project roadmap.
[xxv] https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/490 - More about the BLISS hash system.
[xxvi] https://www.ethereum.org/ - Home of the Ethereum project.
[xxvii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-3#Security_against_quantum_attacks – SHA3 hash algorithm vs quantum computers.
[xxviii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamport_signature - Lamport signature information.
[xxix] https://theqrl.org/ - Home of the Quantum Resistant Ledger project.
submitted by satoshibytes to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

I hate my Fucking Mining Rig - Short Story of my mining adventure (Don't really hate it)

Wanted to write a short write up on my journey of Crypto mining for some of the newer people and people who want to get into it. Not trying to discourage anyone from starting, but want to show the progression of a newbie.
So I am a good with computers and learned of Bitcoin when it was about $7 a coin. Laughed at the idea of some computer doing some math and getting some BS currency. Million dollar mistake on my part, but hindsight is always 20/20.
Anyways, Learned about ethereum in May. Bought some at around $180 and bought all the way up to $330. Now to the mining rig. Ran all of the calculations and with a 180 hashrate and 900 watts I was gonna get 6-7 Eth per month. Shit was gonna be profitable in under 3 months. I was gonna be a fucking crypto allstar and be rich as fuck!
Bought all of my parts literally the day before they were nonexistent. Literally bought the last RX480's from Amazon. Here is a list of my parts.
Asrock board Pentium dual core processor 4 Gb of ram 128 gb SSD 1200 watt Rosewill PSU 6 Sata to Molex PCI Risers (Junk) 6 RX480's - 2 Asus Strix, 4 Gigabyte Total cost - Roughly $2,500 (Pennies compared to my future ROI)
Please keep in mind that I am not posting every single miner issue that I ran into such as fucking with Wattman for a few weeks before learning about Trixx and Afterburner.
I've built computers before, so that part wasn't hard. Set everything up and get windows 10 running.
Problem 1 - Computer doesn't see all of the cards. Had to run the drivers a few times and tweak some shit, but got all 6 cards seen.
Miner hurdle (See what I did there) but off to the races. Let's get this bitch running so I can begin planning my retirement.
Get Claymore running, Got Trixx to overclock. Ran my cards at -96, 1200, 2200 fans at 85% (Cause I'm cool like that.) Major stability issues from the start. 1 card (Asus) would crash all the time. Didn't know about the watch dog feature in claymore that would restart my rig when a card crashed. Great feature but my computer would go into this state of having power, but not loading the operating system. Even if it did restart, most of the time claymore would get stuck right before setting the dag's and would just lock up. (Claymore program is awesome by the way, this was my rigs fault)
Could not get this fucking Asus card to stop crashing, even on stock settings. Sent the bitch back RMA style. Asus said something was wrong and sent me a new one.
Awesome, lets get this bitch running. I need to start looking at sick houses in Costa Rica to move to once I am rich as Fuck!
New card makes things better for a few days. Not 100% stable but better. Go to vegas for a driving thing (Race cars - Future rich guy stuff) and this mechanical demon starts crashing every few hours. Luckily I had Google remote desktop installed so I could log on and restart it or change settings in Trixx. Had to have my GF unplug it and plug it in a few times.
Get back home, fuck with this thing but still random crashes on random cards. Decide it is the PCI risers. Contact seller who will send me some more for free. Slow boat from china took two weeks to get them. They arrive but still some of them are bad. Can't seem to piece together 6 good ones.
Did some research online (Ethereum Forum and Reddit) and decided to get some new style of risers V007 6 Pin to Sata ($70) and they take a month to get here. Plug them all in and they seem to be working much better. Decent stability, But I ain't got time for fucking stock bios. Let's ramp these bitches up and get 32 MHs per card at 600 watts from the wall!
Actually flashing the bios was pretty easy. Thank you 6 pound 9 ounce baby jesus! Long story short had some major stability issues and bounced around with some different timing straps before finding the right ones. (Uber 3.1 for Samsung memory)
So now that we've got some good hash speeds and decent stability let's ramp this private ATM up a little bit by dual mining some Decred. Get dual mining up and running. go to sleep. Wake up the next morning expecting to see myself on the top 100 forbes list. look at my mining rig stats on my phone and see that it died roughly and hour after I went to sleep. Walked toward my rig on the red carpet I had just installed and saw that it was off. Flicked on the light to check it out. No light, WTF? Well I'll be god damned, no power in this whole fucking room. Checked my breakers and sure enough this metal motherfucker tripped my breaker.
No worries though. I'm smart as fuck. I'll just undervolt the shit out of it to get the power down. No way in hell I am just mining ether. I'm going balls to the wall!
As you can expect I had many days of stability issues and tripped breakers. But fuck it, I have homeowners insurance. Burning it to the ground will be covered. (Didn't happen)
My surge protector must be maxed out. Let's buy a bigger one ($25). Same issues.
Fuck Decred, I'll mine SIA, less power. Damn I'm smart.
Rig is more stable with Sia and no tripped breakers. Family medical emergency, have to fly north for a few days. But my rig has been fairly stable and I've got remote desktop if anything goes wrong.
Arrive at airport, check mining stats, rig is down. No worries remote desktop. FUCK, not responsive, no way to remote into the rig and no way to remotely power it off and on.
Lost 4 days of mining. But no worries the difficulty is only, Holy shit that's high! But the price of Ether will make up for it. Ether crashed to the $200's. Oh well, maybe a 10 room house in Costa instead of a 12. No sweat.
Get back to my house and this whore of a machine is just sitting there in a computer coma. It's on but it's not. LED lights glaring at me like "Fuck you human, I ain't doing your stupid math problems!" Fuck you machine, I'm your master. You will do my math problems and you will fucking like it.
My AMD Drivers seem to disappear and the computer goes into a coma like state. Someone on Reddit suggested using the 16.9.2 drivers. Installed and they worked better.
Still random crashing. This shitty PSU must be maxed out. Fuck you PSU, I'm getting you a little brother (EVGA 750 gold $120.)
What do you mean you have to jerry rig a second PSU so it starts without being connected to a motherboard? 2 more hours of my life wasted.
But finally some stability. On my way to being fucking rich. I start looking at people in bentley's and can only laugh. You dumb fuck, I'm gonna be way richer then you. Gonna get a Bugatti for each day of the week.
Damn this difficulty is a bitch. Fuck you Genesis Mining and your pallets of GPU's. You're killing me smalls!
But anyway, on my way to rolling around in my fuck you money!
Fuck you dag file 135, you're killing my future millions. Fuck you dag 138, you dropped me to 167 mhs.
Thank god AMD was there to save my ass with their dope ass blockchain drivers.
download, run DDU, Restart, install drivers, restart, run pixel patch, restart. Perfect, I'm in the money now! I can taste the caviar and champagne already.
Now my cards only run 4 Mhs each. WTF? Try a bunch of the other new drivers. Same shit. Roll back to 16.9.2 and they run fine, just at 167 instead of 180.
Someone on a forum said he had the same issue and did a fresh install of windows 10 and it worked.
So I'll just reformat my SSD (Windows wouldn't do a fresh install within the operating system. Fuck you Bill Gates! Gonna buy you once I get this thing running at 180.)
Format SSD, plug back in, throw in my gangster ass boot USB drive. Ramdisk error. Fuck you Bill Gates! Reformat SSD multiple times, lots of forum reading. Install windows from another computer through command prompt (I'm a coder now as well.) This shit has got to work, I did it in command prompt bitches!
Same fucking error. Now down to an 8 bedroom house in Costa and only 6 Bugattis.
Let's try unplugging my 6 cards and see if that works. Thank you 6 pound 9 ounce baby jesus. Windows installed.
New drivers work and I'm back at 180! Raking in the cash now.
With those speeds my Asus cards crashed. Had to dial down the hashrate to 177.5 for them to be stable. So now going to use some commands in claymore to run the Asus cards at lower speeds while letting my other cards mine harder.
I wrote this to let people know that mining isn't all Bugatti's and caviar. These machines are fickle little cunts that do what they want. No system is the same. So when you post on a forum, people will give you advice on what may work. But what works for them, may not work on your rig. In the end it's up to you to figure it out.
I have spent countless hours after work and on weekends working on this bitch. Hell I've probably spent a few hours just staring at it and thinking about all of the ways I could destroy it slowly.
While I love Etheruem and do value the knowledge gained, I would have made more money just buying Eth and holding.
The guys you see on youtube building sick rigs with crazy specs have been at it for a while. They have worked through the process and know how to solve all of the problems. You have not and will have to work them out on your own.
My whore of a rig will pay for itself soon. But I would suggest that if you want to start building a new mining rig. Check the difficulty chart and make sure you have tons of free time to fuck with it.
I'd post my wallet address for donations since I just saved you $2,600. But I am afraid hackers will steal my monies :)
Hope you enjoyed my mining life story from the past few months.
submitted by dank4us12 to EtherMining [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, SHA-256, and the NSA

Bitcoin looks to be a great new digital currency that the whole world may someday use. However there are some odd things about bitcoin that deserve more exposure.
First, Bitcoin was officially released by an unknown person who used a Japanese pseduonym, 5 days before Obama was elected. This person does not exist.
Secondly, bitcoin mining is designed to solve hashes in the SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is a 256-bit version of an algorithm that is used to encrypt messages sent over the internet.
The NSA invented SHA-256.
As people's computers mine bitcoins, they are discovering solutions to SHA-256 hashes, which then get stored in to the blockchain, which is a digital record and repository of all activity within bitcoin to date.
Each block is like one SHA-256 puzzle, that the computers try to solve. The only way to solve it is to guess the right answer randomly out of billions or trillions of choices. There is no algorithm or method to find the right solution other than guessing and then doing the computation to see if you were correct or not, due to how the algorithm is constructed (which is exactly what makes it good for security). So when computers mine for bitcoins, they are guessing solutions to that particular block's SHA-256 puzzle. When a solution is found, 50 bitcoins (now, 25, and soon to be 12.5 as dictated by the algorithm) are rewarded to the miner who found the solution. So it's a lottery of sorts. This is why people pool together to form mining pools, where the winnings are shared proportionally among everyone, weighted by their total number of attempted solutions. That helps take the luck out of it so everyone can get more reliable income.
Anyway, these solutions are so hard to find that even with all the computers across the world mining for bitcoins, it still takes 10 minutes to solve just one single puzzle.
This is why it's so secure.
If you want to hack a system that uses SHA-256 (which is a very encryption common system to use, alongside SHA-128 which is even weaker) then hacking it difficult because you have to guess over and over to solve this large prime number problem. However, if you have a list of all the prime numbers and their solutions (including many really huge numbers that haven't been computed except for this list) then that is a speedup to cracking a particular system using SHA-256, because you don't have to run all those calculations, you can simply look them up. In the blockchain.
So there is a potential the blockchain is an open distributed-computing SHA-256 solution repository, which enables hackers who know how to use it (like the NSA).
With all this in mind, it's easier to see why countries are starting to accept bitcoin as a legal currency. Japan officially recognized it as currency just recently:
We know Japan is often a testing ground for US monetary policy (QE and Abenomics, for example) so this is likely to be the direction of the future, which makes it a good investment because this implies it's backed by the western central banks, which means it will probably prosper in the long term. Which is why we see so many rich people investing in it.
But not so much with litecoin or etherium, which are some of the biggest competitors to bitcoin on the cryptocurrency market. You can see the largest coins by total market cap here:
Litecoin uses Scrypt instead of SHA-256. Scrypt was invented by a person developing linux, apparently more of an independent actor.
Bitcoin dominates the market, being 20x the size of Litecoin.
I think cryptocurrencies are great, but I think people need to be mindful of what is going on behind the scenes, and to ensure there are competing cryptocurrencies rather than a singular bitcoin monopoly that dominates the market. However it's good that one cryptocurrecy grow to prominence to establish the infrastructure of using them.
I do think there is government backing because of the relationship of bitcoin to the NSA's SHA-256 algorithm. However over the next few decades, I think that algorithm will become less and less relevant as cryptography becomes more advanced, and thus bitcoin will lose government support because it will no longer be useful to the NSA. However there will likely be replacement cryptocurrencies by that time.
So it seems like a short-term western global currency, but in the long term will likely have to be replaced as SHA-256 loses its relevancy, as computers become more powerful.
submitted by magnora7 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

For the newbies: You may have heard that Bitcoin works by "solving math problems", but what are the math problems?

Disclaimer: This has probably been covered before, and in more approachable language, so if this explanation is pointless duplication, let me know and I'll delete it.
So the math problems in Bitcoin aren't your traditional math: your computer isn't solving algebra problems or partial differentials. They involve cryptographic hashes: you might've come across these when you download a file, where the website says "here's the file, and here's a hash you can use to verify that the file downloaded properly". So your process of verification would be:
Download -> Hash(Downloaded File) -> Is Hash The Same? 
Say you downloaded a copy of Audacity for OSX, and the site says "the MD5 hash for audacity-macosx-ub-2.1.2.dmg is 535e103d9bc4a4625d71260c3a427d09 if you want to check it downloaded properly". So you download the file, head to your command prompt, and:
$ md5 audacity-macosx-ub-2.1.2.dmg MD5 (audacity-macosx-ub-2.1.2.dmg) = 535e103d9bc4a4625d71260c3a427d09 
Hey, it's the same.
Now, hashes work by taking all the numbers in the file and Doing Something to them; the simplest would, of course, be the checksum: add all the numbers together. One big problem with checksumming though: if you add 1 to a number somewhere in the file, and subtract 1 elsewhere, you get a corrupted file with the same checksum. Not ideal.
So algorithms like MD5, SHA-1 and the like arose, which do more complicated things. The number that falls out of these is quite large: MD5, for example, outputs a 128-bit number (the biggest value is something like 80 quintillion quintillion) but it's not the absolute value of the number that's important, just the fact that it's the same as what the website says it should be.
Aside: "But if the hash is just a huge number, why does it have those weird letters in?"
It's just written in hexadecimal (base 16) instead of base 10. In your average decimal base-10 number, the digits are 0-9 and the number values go units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.
In base 16, the digits are 0-9 then a-f (ten to fifteen), and the number values go units, sixteens, two-hundred-and-fifty-sixes, four-thousand-and-ninety-sixes, etc.
Now. Bitcoin uses this same technology (it uses the SHA-256 algorithm in particular) to hash the contents of each block of transactions that comes through. It looks a little like this:
Hash of the last block -----\ | Hash of the transactions --+ SHA256 -> This block's hash in this block | (twice) | Current time ----------/ 
And thus the block chain gets built: "this block's hash" falls out of the above algorithm, and gets fed into the algorithm for the next block.
Except SHA-256 doesn't take long to compute; a cellphone can do literally millions of these hashes per second. Here's where the genius of Bitcoin comes in: there's an artificial limit placed by the algorithm on how fast blocks can be generated, and it doesn't matter how fast your computer (or the whole network of computers) is at generating these hashes. It works by adding one thing to the above diagram:
Hash of the last block -----\ | Hash of the transactions --+ SHA256 -> This block's hash in this block | (twice) | Current time ----------+ | A number to twiddle -------/ 
(The technical literature actually calls it a "nonce".)
I said above that the numeric value of the hash isn't important when you download a file, just the fact that it matches what the website says it should be. In Bitcoin, the numeric value of the hash is important: it needs to be less than a certain value (the "target") for the block you make to be accepted by the network. For example, (as of the time of writing) the last block had a hash of 000000000000000001ef62f299ea93356f4d52c75ff3cc442b4a073e90f947e0; look at all those zeros at the front!
SHA-256 is very good at making an even distribution of its numeric value: futz with the content of what you're hashing even a tiny bit, and the number that falls out is vastly different. So, you need to do a lot of twiddling of that nonce, to find a block where the hash comes out with all those zeros at the front.
In fact, you need to do so much twiddling that, on average, the entire network of computers doing this will only find one solution to the problem every ten minutes. That solution gets broadcast to the network, the other computers will plug it in as "the hash of the last block", and keep going.
One more question you might have: what happens when computers suddenly get a lot faster at doing these calculations, and they can rattle their way to a solution in a minute, or 30 seconds?
Bitcoin has a solution: change the target, to make it even lower. This is referred to as a "change in difficulty", and happens around every two weeks if the blocks come out every ten minutes (every 2,016 blocks). If the blocks come out faster, the difficulty changes sooner, and changes by more, to get things back on the ten-minutes-per-block track.
Conversely, if computers suddenly get very slow at doing this work and blocks only come out once an hour, the difficulty will change to make life easier. (Again, it'll only change every 2,016 blocks, so it might take a while to build the chain up to that point; until then, we'd have to suffer with slow blocks.)
So, I hope this was useful, and that it was accurate. It helped to clarify things in my mind, at least; let me know if it helped (and if I missed anything).
submitted by OrangeredStilton to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Implementing full Internet IPv6 end-to-end encryption based on Cryptographically Generated Address

# Foreword

Encryption based on shared secrets

Symmetric encryption is based on shared keys, asymmetric encryption is based on shared public keys, and HTTPS is based on the browser's built-in CA root certificate.

There have been rumors that IPv6 can implement end-to-end encryption of all the Internet based on IPsec, but this is impossible.

IPsec is also based on passwords or certificates, and also requires shared secrets.

The problem is that there is no shared secret between us and strangers. Without the secret of sharing, we can't authenticate each other. If this problem is not solved, Internet end-to-end encryption is impossible.

But Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA) solves this problem because CGA turns the IPv6 address itself into a "shared secret."

# Cryptographically Generated Address

Detailed CGA information can be found in RFC 3972, I will briefly explain here.

CGA is used to implement Secure Neighbor Discovery, which resolves authentication without CA.

The CGA divides the IPv6 address into three parts, the first 64-bit subnet prefix, the middle 3 bits of computational difficulty, and the last 59 bits of the hash address generated based on the public key.

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| |
| modifier |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| |
| subnet prefix |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
|collision count |
| |
| public key |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| |
| Extension Fields |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

  1. Generate a 128-bit random value and fill in the modifier, set the network prefix and collision count to 0, and fill in the public key and extension field.

  1. Perform the hash on the above CGA data structure, and get the hash value of the first 112 bits as HASH2.

  1. If the first 16 * sec bit of HASH2 is 0, continue, otherwise the modifier increments by 1 and repeats the second step. This is a proof of workload, increasing the difficulty of hash collision.

  1. Fill in the actual network prefix, perform a hash on the CGA data structure, and record the first 64 bits of the hash value as HASH1.

  1. Cover the first 3 bits of HASH1 with sec. Now we get the CGA address. Combining the 64-bit network prefix with the CGA address is the complete IPv6 address.

  1. If an IPv6 address conflict occurs and someone has used this address, increase the collision count and return to step 4.

The above is the process of CGA generating IPv6 address. We successfully associate the public key with the IPv6 address. No CA is needed. The IPv6 address contains the shared secret.

Now we can send the public key to the stranger and sign it with the private key. MITM cannot replace the public key. Because there is a hash of the public key in the IPv6 address, the public key cannot be forged.

In Secure Neighbor Discovery, CGA is used to prevent impersonation of NA messages, similar to ARP spoofing attacks, to prevent contamination of MAC addresses in cache tables.

The private key signs the MAC address, and the NA message of the signature and the public key is sent to the other party. The other party verifies the public key according to the hash in IPv6, and verifies the signature, so that the person who forges the NA message has no way to start.

# IPv6 Secure Encryption Protocol

I think CGA is too wasteful if it is only used in Secure Neighbor Discovery.

CGA can be used on the entire Internet!

CGA solves the problem of shared secrets, we can use CGA to achieve end-to-end encryption of the entire Internet.

When we connect to the Internet, the router will send us RA messages, the RA contains the subnet prefix, we can use CGA to generate its own public key, private key, IPv6 address.

When we communicate with strangers, we can use the following handshaking protocol.

Public key, the Diffie-Hellman key, and the signature of the DH-Key can be stored in the extended header of IPv6

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob

pub-B dh-B sign-B
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

encrypt data
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob

encrypt data
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

  1. Alice sends the public key, the Diffie-Hellman key, and the signature of the DH-Key with the private key. When Bob receives the message, the public key is verified by CGA. The public key verifies the signature, and DH-Key can be used to generate its own AES password.

  1. Bob replies to the same message from Alice, and Alice also generates her own AES key.

  1. and 4. Now both parties have the same AES key and can encrypt the IPv6 payload.

# Frequently Asked Questions:

  1. Why not use TLS?

Because TLS requires CA, or share the public key in advance.TLS is an application layer protocol that requires developers to configure itself, not a general solution.

I think the Internet needs network layer encryption. Network layer encryption can hide port information. You can't listen to web, dns, ftp at 443 at the same time. Governments and hackers can view the services you are using based on port information.

And encryption at the network layer can protect many plaintext protocols. After all, we can't let everyone use TLS to protect themselves. There should be a way to protect those old servers and those who don't know how to use TLS.

  1. Is the 59-bit hash enough to resist a collision attack?

Network layer encryption is mainly used to provide basic security mechanisms, similar to social insurance. If a higher level of security is required, other protocols can be used at the application layer. The 59-bit hash has proof of workload when calculating hashes, which I think is sufficient to defend against ordinary attackers.

  1. Are there other programs that use CGA-like functions?

Tox (encrypted instant communication), generating the address of the DHT network based on the public key

Bitcoin, generating a wallet address based on the public key

  1. What if the encrypted IPv6 packet is lost?

The network layer is not responsible for the integrity of the data, and the retransmission is the responsibility of the transport layer.

  1. What if lose packets when handshaking?

If Alice's handshake packet is lost, Alice is responsible for retransmission.

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob lost

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob retransmission

If Bob's handshake packet is lost, Alice will retransmit his handshake packet, and Bob will send his handshake packet again after receiving it.

If Bob sends its own encrypted message before retransmission, it is ignored because the network layer is not responsible for data integrity and waits for the transport layer to retransmit.

Network layer encryption does not use a three-dimensional handshake like TCP.

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob

pub-B dh-B sign-B
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

encrypt data
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob retransmission

pub-B dh-B sign-B
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob retransmission

encrypt data
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob


# idea

If we can encrypt at the network layer, I think traffic identification can be a thing of the past, and the Internet is ushered in a new era.

What do you think of this idea?
submitted by ttttabcd to ipv6 [link] [comments]

Repost - I hate my Fucking Mining rig! (Not really)(Long)

Wanted to write a short write up on my journey of Crypto mining for some of the newer people and people who want to get into it. Not trying to discourage anyone from starting, but want to show the progression of a newbie.
So I am a good with computers and learned of Bitcoin when it was about $7 a coin. Laughed at the idea of some computer doing some math and getting some BS currency. Million dollar mistake on my part, but hindsight is always 20/20.
Anyways, Learned about ethereum in May. Bought some at around $180 and bought all the way up to $330. Now to the mining rig. Ran all of the calculations and with a 180 hashrate and 900 watts I was gonna get 6-7 Eth per month. Shit was gonna be profitable in under 3 months. I was gonna be a fucking crypto allstar and be rich as fuck!
Bought all of my parts literally the day before they were nonexistent. Literally bought the last RX480's from Amazon. Here is a list of my parts.
Asrock board Pentium dual core processor 4 Gb of ram 128 gb SSD 1200 watt Rosewill PSU 6 Sata to Molex PCI Risers (Junk) 6 RX480's - 2 Asus Strix, 4 Gigabyte Total cost - Roughly $2,500 (Pennies compared to my future ROI)
Please keep in mind that I am not posting every single miner issue that I ran into such as fucking with Wattman for a few weeks before learning about Trixx and Afterburner.
I've built computers before, so that part wasn't hard. Set everything up and get windows 10 running.
Problem 1 - Computer doesn't see all of the cards. Had to run the drivers a few times and tweak some shit, but got all 6 cards seen.
Miner hurdle (See what I did there) but off to the races. Let's get this bitch running so I can begin planning my retirement.
Get Claymore running, Got Trixx to overclock. Ran my cards at -96, 1200, 2200 fans at 85% (Cause I'm cool like that.) Major stability issues from the start. 1 card (Asus) would crash all the time. Didn't know about the watch dog feature in claymore that would restart my rig when a card crashed. Great feature but my computer would go into this state of having power, but not loading the operating system. Even if it did restart, most of the time claymore would get stuck right before setting the dag's and would just lock up. (Claymore program is awesome by the way, this was my rigs fault)
Could not get this fucking Asus card to stop crashing, even on stock settings. Sent the bitch back RMA style. Asus said something was wrong and sent me a new one.
Awesome, lets get this bitch running. I need to start looking at sick houses in Costa Rica to move to once I am rich as Fuck!
New card makes things better for a few days. Not 100% stable but better. Go to vegas for a driving thing (Race cars - Future rich guy stuff) and this mechanical demon starts crashing every few hours. Luckily I had Google remote desktop installed so I could log on and restart it or change settings in Trixx. Had to have my GF unplug it and plug it in a few times.
Get back home, fuck with this thing but still random crashes on random cards. Decide it is the PCI risers. Contact seller who will send me some more for free. Slow boat from china took two weeks to get them. They arrive but still some of them are bad. Can't seem to piece together 6 good ones.
Did some research online (Ethereum Forum and Reddit) and decided to get some new style of risers V007 6 Pin to Sata ($70) and they take a month to get here. Plug them all in and they seem to be working much better. Decent stability, But I ain't got time for fucking stock bios. Let's ramp these bitches up and get 32 MHs per card at 600 watts from the wall!
Actually flashing the bios was pretty easy. Thank you 6 pound 9 ounce baby jesus! Long story short had some major stability issues and bounced around with some different timing straps before finding the right ones. (Uber 3.1 for Samsung memory)
So now that we've got some good hash speeds and decent stability let's ramp this private ATM up a little bit by dual mining some Decred. Get dual mining up and running. go to sleep. Wake up the next morning expecting to see myself on the top 100 forbes list. look at my mining rig stats on my phone and see that it died roughly and hour after I went to sleep. Walked toward my rig on the red carpet I had just installed and saw that it was off. Flicked on the light to check it out. No light, WTF? Well I'll be god damned, no power in this whole fucking room. Checked my breakers and sure enough this metal motherfucker tripped my breaker.
No worries though. I'm smart as fuck. I'll just undervolt the shit out of it to get the power down. No way in hell I am just mining ether. I'm going balls to the wall!
As you can expect I had many days of stability issues and tripped breakers. But fuck it, I have homeowners insurance. Burning it to the ground will be covered. (Didn't happen)
My surge protector must be maxed out. Let's buy a bigger one ($25). Same issues.
Fuck Decred, I'll mine SIA, less power. Damn I'm smart.
Rig is more stable with Sia and no tripped breakers. Family medical emergency, have to fly north for a few days. But my rig has been fairly stable and I've got remote desktop if anything goes wrong.
Arrive at airport, check mining stats, rig is down. No worries remote desktop. FUCK, not responsive, no way to remote into the rig and no way to remotely power it off and on.
Lost 4 days of mining. But no worries the difficulty is only, Holy shit that's high! But the price of Ether will make up for it. Ether crashed to the $200's. Oh well, maybe a 10 room house in Costa instead of a 12. No sweat.
Get back to my house and this whore of a machine is just sitting there in a computer coma. It's on but it's not. LED lights glaring at me like "Fuck you human, I ain't doing your stupid math problems!" Fuck you machine, I'm your master. You will do my math problems and you will fucking like it.
My AMD Drivers seem to disappear and the computer goes into a coma like state. Someone on Reddit suggested using the 16.9.2 drivers. Installed and they worked better.
Still random crashing. This shitty PSU must be maxed out. Fuck you PSU, I'm getting you a little brother (EVGA 750 gold $120.)
What do you mean you have to jerry rig a second PSU so it starts without being connected to a motherboard? 2 more hours of my life wasted.
But finally some stability. On my way to being fucking rich. I start looking at people in bentley's and can only laugh. You dumb fuck, I'm gonna be way richer then you. Gonna get a Bugatti for each day of the week.
Damn this difficulty is a bitch. Fuck you Genesis Mining and your pallets of GPU's. You're killing me smalls!
But anyway, on my way to rolling around in my fuck you money!
Fuck you dag file 135, you're killing my future millions. Fuck you dag 138, you dropped me to 167 mhs.
Thank god AMD was there to save my ass with their dope ass blockchain drivers.
download, run DDU, Restart, install drivers, restart, run pixel patch, restart. Perfect, I'm in the money now! I can taste the caviar and champagne already.
Now my cards only run 4 Mhs each. WTF? Try a bunch of the other new drivers. Same shit. Roll back to 16.9.2 and they run fine, just at 167 instead of 180.
Someone on a forum said he had the same issue and did a fresh install of windows 10 and it worked.
So I'll just reformat my SSD (Windows wouldn't do a fresh install within the operating system. Fuck you Bill Gates! Gonna buy you once I get this thing running at 180.)
Format SSD, plug back in, throw in my gangster ass boot USB drive. Ramdisk error. Fuck you Bill Gates! Reformat SSD multiple times, lots of forum reading. Install windows from another computer through command prompt (I'm a coder now as well.) This shit has got to work, I did it in command prompt bitches!
Same fucking error. Now down to an 8 bedroom house in Costa and only 6 Bugattis.
Let's try unplugging my 6 cards and see if that works. Thank you 6 pound 9 ounce baby jesus. Windows installed.
New drivers work and I'm back at 180! Raking in the cash now.
With those speeds my Asus cards crashed. Had to dial down the hashrate to 177.5 for them to be stable. So now going to use some commands in claymore to run the Asus cards at lower speeds while letting my other cards mine harder.
I wrote this to let people know that mining isn't all Bugatti's and caviar. These machines are fickle little cunts that do what they want. No system is the same. So when you post on a forum, people will give you advice on what may work. But what works for them, may not work on your rig. In the end it's up to you to figure it out.
I have spent countless hours after work and on weekends working on this bitch. Hell I've probably spent a few hours just staring at it and thinking about all of the ways I could destroy it slowly.
While I love Etheruem and do value the knowledge gained, I would have made more money just buying Eth and holding.
The guys you see on youtube building sick rigs with crazy specs have been at it for a while. They have worked through the process and know how to solve all of the problems. You have not and will have to work them out on your own.
My whore of a rig will pay for itself soon. But I would suggest that if you want to start building a new mining rig. Check the difficulty chart and make sure you have tons of free time to fuck with it.
I'd post my wallet address for donations since I just saved you $2,600. But I am afraid hackers will steal my monies :)
Hope you enjoyed my mining life story from the past few months.
Edit - Had an Asus card die on me and replaced it with a 1070ti. Nvidia is so much easier!
My rosewill 1200 watt PSU melted the 8 pin port and cable. Had to drop $300 on Amazons last 1300 EVGA.
But my rig has well surpassed it's cost and is still mining away like a champ. Eth for life!
submitted by dank4us12 to EtherMining [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, SHA-256, and the NSA

Bitcoin looks to be a great new digital currency that the whole world may someday use. However there are some odd things about bitcoin that deserve more exposure.
First, Bitcoin was officially released by an unknown person who used a Japanese pseduonym, 5 days before Obama was elected. This person does not exist.
Secondly, bitcoin mining is designed to solve hashes in the SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is a 256-bit version of an algorithm that is used to encrypt messages sent over the internet.
The NSA invented SHA-256.
As people's computers mine bitcoins, they are discovering solutions to SHA-256 hashes, which then get stored in to the blockchain, which is a digital record and repository of all activity within bitcoin to date.
Each block is like one SHA-256 puzzle, that the computers try to solve. The only way to solve it is to guess the right answer randomly out of billions or trillions of choices. There is no algorithm or method to find the right solution other than guessing and then doing the computation to see if you were correct or not, due to how the algorithm is constructed (which is exactly what makes it good for security). So when computers mine for bitcoins, they are guessing solutions to that particular block's SHA-256 puzzle. When a solution is found, 50 bitcoins (now, 25, and soon to be 12.5 as dictated by the algorithm) are rewarded to the miner who found the solution. So it's a lottery of sorts. This is why people pool together to form mining pools, where the winnings are shared proportionally among everyone, weighted by their total number of attempted solutions. That helps take the luck out of it so everyone can get more reliable income.
Anyway, these solutions are so hard to find that even with all the computers across the world mining for bitcoins, it still takes 10 minutes to solve just one single puzzle.
This is why it's so secure.
If you want to hack a system that uses SHA-256 (which is a very encryption common system to use, alongside SHA-128 which is even weaker) then hacking it difficult because you have to guess over and over to solve this large prime number problem. However, if you have a list of all the prime numbers and their solutions (including many really huge numbers that haven't been computed except for this list) then that is a speedup to cracking a particular system using SHA-256, because you don't have to run all those calculations, you can simply look them up. In the blockchain.
So there is a potential the blockchain is an open distributed-computing SHA-256 solution repository, which enables hackers who know how to use it (like the NSA).
With all this in mind, it's easier to see why countries are starting to accept bitcoin as a legal currency. Japan officially recognized it as currency just recently:
We know Japan is often a testing ground for US monetary policy (QE and Abenomics, for example) so this is likely to be the direction of the future, which makes it a good investment because this implies it's backed by the western central banks, which means it will probably prosper in the long term. Which is why we see so many rich people investing in it.
But not so much with litecoin or etherium, which are some of the biggest competitors to bitcoin on the cryptocurrency market. You can see the largest coins by total market cap here:
Litecoin uses Scrypt instead of SHA-256. Scrypt was invented by a person developing linux, apparently more of an independent actor.
Bitcoin dominates the market, being 20x the size of Litecoin.
I think cryptocurrencies are great, but I think people need to be mindful of what is going on behind the scenes, and to ensure there are competing cryptocurrencies rather than a singular bitcoin monopoly that dominates the market. However it's good that one cryptocurrecy grow to prominence to establish the infrastructure of using them.
I do think there is government backing because of the relationship of bitcoin to the NSA's SHA-256 algorithm. However over the next few decades, I think that algorithm will become less and less relevant as cryptography becomes more advanced, and thus bitcoin will lose government support because it will no longer be useful to the NSA. However there will likely be replacement cryptocurrencies by that time.
So it seems like a short-term western global currency, but in the long term will likely have to be replaced as SHA-256 loses its relevancy, as computers become more powerful.
submitted by magnora7 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Implementing full Internet IPv6 end-to-end encryption based on Cryptographically Generated Address

# Foreword

Encryption based on shared secrets

Symmetric encryption is based on shared keys, asymmetric encryption is based on shared public keys, and HTTPS is based on the browser's built-in CA root certificate.

There have been rumors that IPv6 can implement end-to-end encryption of all the Internet based on IPsec, but this is impossible.

IPsec is also based on passwords or certificates, and also requires shared secrets.

The problem is that there is no shared secret between us and strangers. Without the secret of sharing, we can't authenticate each other. If this problem is not solved, Internet end-to-end encryption is impossible.

But Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA) solves this problem because CGA turns the IPv6 address itself into a "shared secret."

# Cryptographically Generated Address

Detailed CGA information can be found in RFC 3972, I will briefly explain here.

CGA is used to implement Secure Neighbor Discovery, which resolves authentication without CA.

The CGA divides the IPv6 address into three parts, the first 64-bit subnet prefix, the middle 3 bits of computational difficulty, and the last 59 bits of the hash address generated based on the public key.

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| |
| modifier |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| |
| subnet prefix |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
|collision count |
| |
| public key |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| |
| Extension Fields |
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

  1. Generate a 128-bit random value and fill in the modifier, set the network prefix and collision count to 0, and fill in the public key and extension field.

  1. Perform the hash on the above CGA data structure, and get the hash value of the first 112 bits as HASH2.

  1. If the first 16 * sec bit of HASH2 is 0, continue, otherwise the modifier increments by 1 and repeats the second step. This is a proof of workload, increasing the difficulty of hash collision.

  1. Fill in the actual network prefix, perform a hash on the CGA data structure, and record the first 64 bits of the hash value as HASH1.

  1. Cover the first 3 bits of HASH1 with sec. Now we get the CGA address. Combining the 64-bit network prefix with the CGA address is the complete IPv6 address.

  1. If an IPv6 address conflict occurs and someone has used this address, increase the collision count and return to step 4.

The above is the process of CGA generating IPv6 address. We successfully associate the public key with the IPv6 address. No CA is needed. The IPv6 address contains the shared secret.

Now we can send the public key to the stranger and sign it with the private key. MITM cannot replace the public key. Because there is a hash of the public key in the IPv6 address, the public key cannot be forged.

In Secure Neighbor Discovery, CGA is used to prevent impersonation of NA messages, similar to ARP spoofing attacks, to prevent contamination of MAC addresses in cache tables.

The private key signs the MAC address, and the NA message of the signature and the public key is sent to the other party. The other party verifies the public key according to the hash in IPv6, and verifies the signature, so that the person who forges the NA message has no way to start.

# IPv6 Secure Encryption Protocol

I think CGA is too wasteful if it is only used in Secure Neighbor Discovery.

CGA can be used on the entire Internet!

CGA solves the problem of shared secrets, we can use CGA to achieve end-to-end encryption of the entire Internet.

When we connect to the Internet, the router will send us RA messages, the RA contains the subnet prefix, we can use CGA to generate its own public key, private key, IPv6 address.

When we communicate with strangers, we can use the following handshaking protocol.

Public key, the Diffie-Hellman key, and the signature of the DH-Key can be stored in the extended header of IPv6

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob

pub-B dh-B sign-B
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

encrypt data
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob

encrypt data
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

  1. Alice sends the public key, the Diffie-Hellman key, and the signature of the DH-Key with the private key. When Bob receives the message, the public key is verified by CGA. The public key verifies the signature, and DH-Key can be used to generate its own AES password.

  1. Bob replies to the same message from Alice, and Alice also generates her own AES key.

  1. and 4. Now both parties have the same AES key and can encrypt the IPv6 payload.

# Frequently Asked Questions:

  1. Why not use TLS?

Because TLS requires CA, or share the public key in advance.TLS is an application layer protocol that requires developers to configure itself, not a general solution.

I think the Internet needs network layer encryption. Network layer encryption can hide port information. You can't listen to web, dns, ftp at 443 at the same time. Governments and hackers can view the services you are using based on port information.

And encryption at the network layer can protect many plaintext protocols. After all, we can't let everyone use TLS to protect themselves. There should be a way to protect those old servers and those who don't know how to use TLS.

  1. Is the 59-bit hash enough to resist a collision attack?

Network layer encryption is mainly used to provide basic security mechanisms, similar to social insurance. If a higher level of security is required, other protocols can be used at the application layer. The 59-bit hash has proof of workload when calculating hashes, which I think is sufficient to defend against ordinary attackers.

  1. Are there other programs that use CGA-like functions?

Tox (encrypted instant communication), generating the address of the DHT network based on the public key

Bitcoin, generating a wallet address based on the public key

  1. What if the encrypted IPv6 packet is lost?

The network layer is not responsible for the integrity of the data, and the retransmission is the responsibility of the transport layer.

  1. What if lose packets when handshaking?

If Alice's handshake packet is lost, Alice is responsible for retransmission.

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob lost

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob retransmission

If Bob's handshake packet is lost, Alice will retransmit his handshake packet, and Bob will send his handshake packet again after receiving it.

If Bob sends its own encrypted message before retransmission, it is ignored because the network layer is not responsible for data integrity and waits for the transport layer to retransmit.

Network layer encryption does not use a three-dimensional handshake like TCP.

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob

pub-B dh-B sign-B
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

encrypt data
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob

pub-A dh-A sign-A
  1. Alice --------------------- Bob retransmission

pub-B dh-B sign-B
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob retransmission

encrypt data
  1. Alice <----------------------- Bob


# idea

If we can encrypt at the network layer, I think traffic identification can be a thing of the past, and the Internet is ushered in a new era.

What do you think of this idea?
submitted by ttttabcd to crypto [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, SHA-256, and the NSA

Bitcoin looks to be a great new digital currency that the whole world may someday use. However there are some odd things about bitcoin that deserve more exposure.
First, Bitcoin was officially released by an unknown person who used a Japanese pseduonym, 5 days before Obama was elected. This person does not exist.
Secondly, bitcoin mining is designed to solve hashes in the SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is a 256-bit version of an algorithm that is used to encrypt messages sent over the internet.
The NSA invented SHA-256.
As people's computers mine bitcoins, they are discovering solutions to SHA-256 hashes, which then get stored in to the blockchain, which is a digital record and repository of all activity within bitcoin to date.
Each block is like one SHA-256 puzzle, that the computers try to solve. The only way to solve it is to guess the right answer randomly out of billions or trillions of choices. There is no algorithm or method to find the right solution other than guessing and then doing the computation to see if you were correct or not, due to how the algorithm is constructed (which is exactly what makes it good for security). So when computers mine for bitcoins, they are guessing solutions to that particular block's SHA-256 puzzle. When a solution is found, 50 bitcoins (now, 25, and soon to be 12.5 as dictated by the algorithm) are rewarded to the miner who found the solution. So it's a lottery of sorts. This is why people pool together to form mining pools, where the winnings are shared proportionally among everyone, weighted by their total number of attempted solutions. That helps take the luck out of it so everyone can get more reliable income.
Anyway, these solutions are so hard to find that even with all the computers across the world mining for bitcoins, it still takes 10 minutes to solve just one single puzzle.
This is why it's so secure.
If you want to hack a system that uses SHA-256 (which is a very encryption common system to use, alongside SHA-128 which is even weaker) then hacking it difficult because you have to guess over and over to solve this large prime number problem. However, if you have a list of all the prime numbers and their solutions (including many really huge numbers that haven't been computed except for this list) then that is a speedup to cracking a particular system using SHA-256, because you don't have to run all those calculations, you can simply look them up. In the blockchain.
So there is a potential the blockchain is an open distributed-computing SHA-256 solution repository, which enables hackers who know how to use it (like the NSA).
With all this in mind, it's easier to see why countries are starting to accept bitcoin as a legal currency. Japan officially recognized it as currency just recently:
We know Japan is often a testing ground for US monetary policy (QE and Abenomics, for example) so this is likely to be the direction of the future, which makes it a good investment because this implies it's backed by the western central banks, which means it will probably prosper in the long term. Which is why we see so many rich people investing in it.
But not so much with litecoin or etherium, which are some of the biggest competitors to bitcoin on the cryptocurrency market. You can see the largest coins by total market cap here:
Litecoin uses Scrypt instead of SHA-256. Scrypt was invented by a person developing linux, apparently more of an independent actor.
Bitcoin dominates the market, being 20x the size of Litecoin.
I think cryptocurrencies are great, but I think people need to be mindful of what is going on behind the scenes, and to ensure there are competing cryptocurrencies rather than a singular bitcoin monopoly that dominates the market. However it's good that one cryptocurrecy grow to prominence to establish the infrastructure of using them.
I do think there is government backing because of the relationship of bitcoin to the NSA's SHA-256 algorithm. However over the next few decades, I think that algorithm will become less and less relevant as cryptography becomes more advanced, and thus bitcoin will lose government support because it will no longer be useful to the NSA. However there will likely be replacement cryptocurrencies by that time.
So it seems like a short-term western global currency, but in the long term will likely have to be replaced as SHA-256 loses its relevancy, as computers become more powerful.
submitted by magnora7 to magnora7 [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, SHA-256, and the NSA

Bitcoin looks to be a great new digital currency that the whole world may someday use. However there are some odd things about bitcoin that deserve more exposure.
First, Bitcoin was officially released by an unknown person who used a Japanese pseduonym, 5 days before Obama was elected. This person does not exist.
Secondly, bitcoin mining is designed to solve hashes in the SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is a 256-bit version of an algorithm that is used to encrypt messages sent over the internet.
The NSA invented SHA-256.
As people's computers mine bitcoins, they are discovering solutions to SHA-256 hashes, which then get stored in to the blockchain, which is a digital record and repository of all activity within bitcoin to date.
Each block is like one SHA-256 puzzle, that the computers try to solve. The only way to solve it is to guess the right answer randomly out of billions or trillions of choices. There is no algorithm or method to find the right solution other than guessing and then doing the computation to see if you were correct or not, due to how the algorithm is constructed (which is exactly what makes it good for security). So when computers mine for bitcoins, they are guessing solutions to that particular block's SHA-256 puzzle. When a solution is found, 50 bitcoins (now, 25, and soon to be 12.5 as dictated by the algorithm) are rewarded to the miner who found the solution. So it's a lottery of sorts. This is why people pool together to form mining pools, where the winnings are shared proportionally among everyone, weighted by their total number of attempted solutions. That helps take the luck out of it so everyone can get more reliable income.
Anyway, these solutions are so hard to find that even with all the computers across the world mining for bitcoins, it still takes 10 minutes to solve just one single puzzle.
This is why it's so secure.
If you want to hack a system that uses SHA-256 (which is a very encryption common system to use, alongside SHA-128 which is even weaker) then hacking it difficult because you have to guess over and over to solve this large prime number problem. However, if you have a list of all the prime numbers and their solutions (including many really huge numbers that haven't been computed except for this list) then that is a speedup to cracking a particular system using SHA-256, because you don't have to run all those calculations, you can simply look them up. In the blockchain.
So there is a potential the blockchain is an open distributed-computing SHA-256 solution repository, which enables hackers who know how to use it (like the NSA).
With all this in mind, it's easier to see why countries are starting to accept bitcoin as a legal currency. Japan officially recognized it as currency just recently:
We know Japan is often a testing ground for US monetary policy (QE and Abenomics, for example) so this is likely to be the direction of the future, which makes it a good investment because this implies it's backed by the western central banks, which means it will probably prosper in the long term. Which is why we see so many rich people investing in it.
But not so much with litecoin or etherium, which are some of the biggest competitors to bitcoin on the cryptocurrency market. You can see the largest coins by total market cap here:
Litecoin uses Scrypt instead of SHA-256. Scrypt was invented by a person developing linux, apparently more of an independent actor.
Bitcoin dominates the market, being 20x the size of Litecoin.
I think cryptocurrencies are great, but I think people need to be mindful of what is going on behind the scenes, and to ensure there are competing cryptocurrencies rather than a singular bitcoin monopoly that dominates the market. However it's good that one cryptocurrecy grow to prominence to establish the infrastructure of using them.
I do think there is government backing because of the relationship of bitcoin to the NSA's SHA-256 algorithm. However over the next few decades, I think that algorithm will become less and less relevant as cryptography becomes more advanced, and thus bitcoin will lose government support because it will no longer be useful to the NSA. However there will likely be replacement cryptocurrencies by that time.
So it seems like a short-term western global currency, but in the long term will likely have to be replaced as SHA-256 loses its relevancy, as computers become more powerful.
submitted by magnora7 to ConspiracyII [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, SHA-256, and the NSA

Bitcoin looks to be a great new digital currency that the whole world may someday use. However there are some odd things about bitcoin that deserve more exposure.
First, Bitcoin was officially released by an unknown person who used a Japanese pseduonym, 5 days before Obama was elected. This person does not exist.
Secondly, bitcoin mining is designed to solve hashes in the SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is a 256-bit version of an algorithm that is used to encrypt messages sent over the internet.
The NSA invented SHA-256.
As people's computers mine bitcoins, they are discovering solutions to SHA-256 hashes, which then get stored in to the blockchain, which is a digital record and repository of all activity within bitcoin to date.
Each block is like one SHA-256 puzzle, that the computers try to solve. The only way to solve it is to guess the right answer randomly out of billions or trillions of choices. There is no algorithm or method to find the right solution other than guessing and then doing the computation to see if you were correct or not, due to how the algorithm is constructed (which is exactly what makes it good for security). So when computers mine for bitcoins, they are guessing solutions to that particular block's SHA-256 puzzle. When a solution is found, 50 bitcoins (now, 25, and soon to be 12.5 as dictated by the algorithm) are rewarded to the miner who found the solution. So it's a lottery of sorts. This is why people pool together to form mining pools, where the winnings are shared proportionally among everyone, weighted by their total number of attempted solutions. That helps take the luck out of it so everyone can get more reliable income.
Anyway, these solutions are so hard to find that even with all the computers across the world mining for bitcoins, it still takes 10 minutes to solve just one single puzzle.
This is why it's so secure.
If you want to hack a system that uses SHA-256 (which is a very encryption common system to use, alongside SHA-128 which is even weaker) then hacking it difficult because you have to guess over and over to solve this large prime number problem. However, if you have a list of all the prime numbers and their solutions (including many really huge numbers that haven't been computed except for this list) then that is a speedup to cracking a particular system using SHA-256, because you don't have to run all those calculations, you can simply look them up. In the blockchain.
So there is a potential the blockchain is an open distributed-computing SHA-256 solution repository, which enables hackers who know how to use it (like the NSA).
With all this in mind, it's easier to see why countries are starting to accept bitcoin as a legal currency. Japan officially recognized it as currency just recently:
We know Japan is often a testing ground for US monetary policy (QE and Abenomics, for example) so this is likely to be the direction of the future, which makes it a good investment because this implies it's backed by the western central banks, which means it will probably prosper in the long term. Which is why we see so many rich people investing in it.
But not so much with litecoin or etherium, which are some of the biggest competitors to bitcoin on the cryptocurrency market. You can see the largest coins by total market cap here:
Litecoin uses Scrypt instead of SHA-256. Scrypt was invented by a person developing linux, apparently more of an independent actor.
Bitcoin dominates the market, being 20x the size of Litecoin.
I think cryptocurrencies are great, but I think people need to be mindful of what is going on behind the scenes, and to ensure there are competing cryptocurrencies rather than a singular bitcoin monopoly that dominates the market. However it's good that one cryptocurrecy grow to prominence to establish the infrastructure of using them.
I do think there is government backing because of the relationship of bitcoin to the NSA's SHA-256 algorithm. However over the next few decades, I think that algorithm will become less and less relevant as cryptography becomes more advanced, and thus bitcoin will lose government support because it will no longer be useful to the NSA. However there will likely be replacement cryptocurrencies by that time.
So it seems like a short-term western global currency, but in the long term will likely have to be replaced as SHA-256 loses its relevancy, as computers become more powerful.
submitted by magnora7 to C_S_T [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, SHA-256, and the NSA

Bitcoin looks to be a great new digital currency that the whole world may someday use. However there are some odd things about bitcoin that deserve more exposure.
First, Bitcoin was officially released by an unknown person who used a Japanese pseduonym, 5 days before Obama was elected. This person does not exist.
Secondly, bitcoin mining is designed to solve hashes in the SHA-256 algorithm. SHA-256 is a 256-bit version of an algorithm that is used to encrypt messages sent over the internet.
The NSA invented SHA-256.
As people's computers mine bitcoins, they are discovering solutions to SHA-256 hashes, which then get stored in to the blockchain, which is a digital record and repository of all activity within bitcoin to date.
Each block is like one SHA-256 puzzle, that the computers try to solve. The only way to solve it is to guess the right answer randomly out of billions or trillions of choices. There is no algorithm or method to find the right solution other than guessing and then doing the computation to see if you were correct or not, due to how the algorithm is constructed (which is exactly what makes it good for security). So when computers mine for bitcoins, they are guessing solutions to that particular block's SHA-256 puzzle. When a solution is found, 50 bitcoins (now, 25, and soon to be 12.5 as dictated by the algorithm) are rewarded to the miner who found the solution. So it's a lottery of sorts. This is why people pool together to form mining pools, where the winnings are shared proportionally among everyone, weighted by their total number of attempted solutions. That helps take the luck out of it so everyone can get more reliable income.
Anyway, these solutions are so hard to find that even with all the computers across the world mining for bitcoins, it still takes 10 minutes to solve just one single puzzle.
This is why it's so secure.
If you want to hack a system that uses SHA-256 (which is a very encryption common system to use, alongside SHA-128 which is even weaker) then hacking it difficult because you have to guess over and over to solve this large prime number problem. However, if you have a list of all the prime numbers and their solutions (including many really huge numbers that haven't been computed except for this list) then that is a speedup to cracking a particular system using SHA-256, because you don't have to run all those calculations, you can simply look them up. In the blockchain.
So there is a potential the blockchain is an open distributed-computing SHA-256 solution repository, which enables hackers who know how to use it (like the NSA).
With all this in mind, it's easier to see why countries are starting to accept bitcoin as a legal currency. Japan officially recognized it as currency just recently:
We know Japan is often a testing ground for US monetary policy (QE and Abenomics, for example) so this is likely to be the direction of the future, which makes it a good investment because this implies it's backed by the western central banks, which means it will probably prosper in the long term. Which is why we see so many rich people investing in it.
But not so much with litecoin or etherium, which are some of the biggest competitors to bitcoin on the cryptocurrency market. You can see the largest coins by total market cap here:
Litecoin uses Scrypt instead of SHA-256. Scrypt was invented by a person developing linux, apparently more of an independent actor.
Bitcoin dominates the market, being 20x the size of Litecoin.
I think cryptocurrencies are great, but I think people need to be mindful of what is going on behind the scenes, and to ensure there are competing cryptocurrencies rather than a singular bitcoin monopoly that dominates the market. However it's good that one cryptocurrecy grow to prominence to establish the infrastructure of using them.
I do think there is government backing because of the relationship of bitcoin to the NSA's SHA-256 algorithm. However over the next few decades, I think that algorithm will become less and less relevant as cryptography becomes more advanced, and thus bitcoin will lose government support because it will no longer be useful to the NSA. However there will likely be replacement cryptocurrencies by that time.
So it seems like a short-term western global currency, but in the long term will likely have to be replaced as SHA-256 loses its relevancy, as computers become more powerful.
submitted by magnora7 to ShrugLifeSyndicate [link] [comments]

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Mining Bitcoin ! HASH FLARE ! FIRST DEPOSIT ! How to make money

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